Here it is!
Your easy to search plain language guide to food and farming.
Terms, acronyms and jargon put into everyday words, all in one place. This isn’t a search engine with millions of words, or a technical reference to write a best management practice. It’s meant for real people and real conversations, from kitchens to boardrooms to fields.

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TermPlain language wordingAcronymSynonymsCategoryReferences
Aboiteau farmingAcadian farmers built a system of dykes to make more farmland for cropsgeneral
AcreUsed to measure size of a field or farm. 1 acre = 43,560 square feet or 0.405 hectares. Most Canadian farmers use acres instead of the metric term hectares. For a visual, a Canadian football field including endzones is about 2 acres.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Active ingredientIngredients in medicines or pesticides that is biologically active. The active ingredients usually make up a small portion of the whole product.A.I. crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Advertising allowanceMoney that a manufacturer pays a retailer to advertise a productretail'a'-supermarket-terms
AggiePerson that has studied agriculture at college or university, sense of community and friendship with others in the field known as "Aggie Spirit". Some college alumni are called Agros.Agrogeneral
Aeration Using a tool to put small holes in the soil to let oxygen and water work further into the soil for plantsgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
Aerial applicationSpraying pesticides by airplane or helicopter to protect cropsgeneral, crops, fruit, vegetable
Agricultural SectorThe industry that includes the science, art and business of cultivating soil, producing crops and raising livestockAgri-food sector, ag sectorgeneral
AgricultureThe science, art and practice of cultivating soil to grow crops and raise livestock to market. From Latin agricultura, from ager, agr- ‘field’ + cultura ‘growing, cultivation’agagri-food, farminggeneral
Agriculture & Agri-Food CanadaFederal ministry within Canadian government that oversees many regulations and programs related to agriculture and food. AAFCAg Canadageneral
Agriculture lenderBankers that specialize in agriculture/farmingag lendergeneral
Agri-foodDescription for the food system and related businesses, combining agriculture and system, agri-food sectorgeneral, processor
AgrologistProfessional who provides advice on agriculture and food related topics, combining their education with experience. Members of a professional designating group may use the title P.Ag. P.Ag.Professional Agrologistgeneral
AgronomicAn adjective used to describe plants and plant products. Check agronomy.general
Agronomic inputA product used to grow a fruit, vegetable or any crop including pesticides, fertilizers and manureinputgeneral
AgronomyScientific field that studies the production of crops like grains, fruits and vegetables, including the soil they grow in.general, crops, fruit, vegetable
Air seederFans blow seeds and fertilizer into place to be planted. Air drills are similar.air drillcrop
Al DenteTo cook food until just firmrestaurant
All in-all outAll the animals in the barn are moved out at once so the barn can be cleaned thoroughly. Then all new animals come in at the same time.pig, turkey, chicken, egg, veal
AllocateA process to decide how much shelf space a product getsretail'a'-supermarket-terms
Anhydrous ammoniaA common form of nitrogen fertilizer, used to feed many common crops.anhydrousgeneral
Animal healthRelated to farm animal health, often refers to working with veterinarians, vaccinations, practices on farm to keep animals from getting sick.general, dairy, beef, veal, sheep, goat, chicken, turkey, egg
Animal rightsA philosophy that animals are not to be used for human benefit (food, clothing, entertainment, medical research). This is not animal welfare. general, beef, dairy, veal, chicken, turkey, egg, sheep, goat
Animal welfareA measure of how we care for farm animals and their wellbeing. This is not animal rights.animal caregeneral, beef, dairy, veal, chicken, turkey, egg, sheep, goat
Animal welfare assessmentInspection to determine if animal welfare standards are being followed, on farms, in transit, at processing plantsauditbeef, dairy, sheep, goat, veal, pig, chicken, turkey, egg
ApicultureBeekeeping, mostly honey bees in hivesgeneral
AquacultureRaising fish and shellfish for food. Also called fish farming. Can be in open lakes or oceans or in tanks on land.Fish farminggeneral
AquiferAn underground layer of water-bearing rock. Groundwater can be extracted using a water well general
Arable landLand that can be used for growing crops and plantsgeneral
Artificial inseminationTo breed an animal by placing semen into the female reproductive tract, not using males for natural breedingA.I. pig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, veal, general
AssessmentA tool to measure how well a farm or business is operating according to standards. This can be a self-assessment or use a third party validator.Auditpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, veal, general, processor, retail/restaurant
AuditA tool to measure how well a farm or business is operating according to standards. This can be a self-audit or use a third party expert. Assessmentpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general, processor, retail/restaurant
AugerTool like a corkscrew used to move grain up or down to transfer between grain wagons and silos; or a tool to drill through ice or wood.general
Average daily gainThe amount of weight an animal gains in one day, measured in grams or kilos or pounds.ADGpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, sheep, goat
Avian influenzaA virus that infects all kinds of birds, inlcuding wild and farm poultry like chickens or turkeys. Sometimes called bird fluA.I. Bird flu turkey, chicken, egg
Avoidable food wasteFood that was once edible for humansgeneral, processor, food
BackgroundingA type of farm that takes young cattle for a short term to get them used to eating grains and prepared to move onto a feedlotbeef
Back OrderOut of stock items that a customer must wait to recieve retail, restaurant
BakeTo cook food in an oven using dry heatrestaurant
BakeapplesGolden, raspberry-like berries that grows across the northCloudberriesfruit, food
BaleDried crops like hay or straw are put into rectangle or round shapes and tied with string in a baler for handling and storage. Fun fact...the rectangle shapes are called square bales.pig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, crop, general
BalerMachine that takes loose dried crops like hay or straw and condenses them into rectangle or round shapes and ties them with string (baler twine) for easy handling and storage.dairy, beef, sheep, goat, crop, general
Baler twineThe string that goes around hay or straw to hold it together in round or square balesgeneral, crop
Barley maltprovides flavour, mouth feel, colour, foam and the sugars that make alcohol.processor, crop, beverage
BarrowYoung male pig that has been neutered pig
BasteAdding moisture to food while cooking by spooning or brushing liquid on to add flavour and prevent food from drying out restaurant
Battery cagesCages that house chickens that lay eggs. This term is not commonly used on farms in Canada.Cagechicken, egg
Beak trimmingTrim the hook off the end of the top half of a beak, in order to prevent peaking other birds. Sometimes wrongfully called 'debeaking'debeakingturkey, chicken, egg
BeatTo quickly stir a mixture in a circular motion using a spoon, whisk or mixerrestaurant
BeavertailA flat pastry deep fried, shaped like a beaver's tail invented in Canadageneral, food
BeddingMaterials such as straw or sawdust used to cover the floor of barns. Used to keep the floor dry and clean, and for animals to lie down on for comfort and warmth. pig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, general
Beef breedsTypes of cows raised for meat. Examples include Angus, Charolais, Simmental, Hereford, Limousin. beef
BeerMalted barley, hops yeast and water.processor, restaurant, retail, beverage
Beneficial management practiceManagement practices that reduce or eliminate an environmental risk. BMPs cover areas ranging from pesticide handling to energy efficiency to water quality.SImilar to Best Management Practicepig, dairy, beef, turkey, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general
Best management practiceGuidelines that help meet necessary legislation, regulations and policies. On a farm for example, best management practices balance farm practices while protecting water and soil.BMPSImilar to Beneficial Management Practicepig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general, processor
Best-before dateHow long a food product will keep it's best freshness, taste and nutritional value. The product is still edible, this is different than expiration date.retail, restaurant, food
BinTerm used for grain storagesilogeneral
BiodieselFuel made by combining alcohol with vegetable oil, animal fats or recycled cooking grease.general, vegetable
BioeconomyEconomic activity from the invention, development, production, and use of products and processes based on biological resources
BiofuelFuel made from renewable sources like corn, soybeans, flaxseed and moregeneral
Biofuel Fuels produced from organic material – biomass – including plant materials and animal waste. Can be blended with regular fuels.general, crop
Biological controlControlling plants, disease and animal pests using natural enemies, including insects that might attack more harmful pests. Ladybugs are a common example.general
Biological diversity Large variety of species within an environmentBiodiversitycrop, fruit, vegetable, general
BiomassPlant material that can be used as an energy source such as wood, grains and agricultural wastegeneral
BiosecurityA program to protect barns and livestock from outside dirt and germs. Think of social distancing for animals and plants.pig, chicken
BiotechnologyScientific tools and techniques used to improve plants or animalsGE, GM, GMOBiotech, Genetic engineeringgeneral
BlanchPutting food into boiling water for a short amount of time parboilrestaurant
BoarAdult male pig that has not been neuteredpig
Boar taintStrong taste in pork from the hormones in intact males (boars), uncommon in North America as most male pigs are neutered.pig
BovineRelated to cattle (cows)cows, cattledairy, beef, veal
Bovine practitionerVeterinarian that specializes in cattledairy vet, beef vet, cow vetgeneral, dairy, beef, veal
Bovine spongiform encephalopathyIncurable disease affecting the nervous system of cattleBSEMad cow diseasebeef
BraiseCooking meat by browning it in fat and simmering it in a covered panrestaurant, food
Braise Cook by browning a food in butter or oil, then gently simmering in a small amount of liquid over low heat for a long period of time in a covered panrestaurant
Branch houseA redistribution center for a manufacturer retail'a'-supermarket-terms
Brand imageCustomer views on the quality, value and taste of a product or opinion of an organization.brandretail, restaurant, general
BrandingIn marketing, used to define a company or person's look and overall impression; for cattle, a brand is a mark that shows which ranch the animal belongs to.
BreederFemale, often refers to the bird that produces fertilized eggs that will grow a chick. This is different than the unfertilized eggs used for people to eat.hen, broiler breederturkey, chicken, egg
Brew pubA place that brews their own beer and serves itprocessor, beverage
BreweryA place where beer is made commerciallyprocessor, beverage
BroilPut food directly on a heat rack, usually used for melting food like cheeserestaurant
Broil To cook over a flamerestaurant, food'a'-supermarket-terms
Broiler breederThe female bird that produces fertilized eggs that hatches chickens that are raised for meat.
Broiler chickentype of chickens raised for meat. Compared to laying hens, which are types of birds better at laying eggs.chicken, retail/restaurant
BrownTo cook a food on high heat to brown itrestaurant
Buck Male goatgoat
BucklingYoung, male goat goat
Buffer stripGrass and plants that prevents water contamination by naturally filtering soil, manure and fertilizer before entering a stream.buffer zonegeneral
Buffer zone Area left natural between a field and body of water to reduce contamination. Related to Buffer Stripbuffer stripgeneral
Bulk milk tankRefrigerated storage where milk is cooled and stored. Usually simply referred to as Bulk Tank.bulk tankdairy, general
Bulk produceUnpackaged fresh fruits and vegetables that customers pick themselvesfruit, vegetable, retail
BullMature male bovine (ie. male cow)dairy, beef, veal
Bull calfMale calf that hasn’t been castrated (ie. hasn't been neutered)beef, dairy, veal
BunkerA long rectangular shaped structure in which feed is dumped and packed into for storage. Sometimes called Bunker Silo or Bunk.silodairy, beef, sheep, goat
BushelMeasurement used for crops that varies depending on the crop. A bushel of wheat, soybeans or potatoes is 60 pounds; a bushel of corn is 56 pounds, and a bushel of sunflower seeds is 24 pounds. crop, fruit vegetable
Business risk managementProvides protection against income and production losses. For example, farmers can buy insurance designed for crops or animals. BRM
ButcherProfessional meat cutterbeef, sheep, goat, veal, pig, chicken, turkey
Butcher shopRetail store that specializes in meat and cutting meat to your specsbeef, sheep, goat, veal, pig, chicken, turkey
ByproductsSecondary products that are used after the main product is taken. For example, the fat from animals is rendered into many useful products or the straw from the wheat harvest.
CaesarA spicy alcoholic beverage created in Canada with clamato juice and vodka as the two main elements, often garnished with celery salt and stalks. It is not a Bloody Mary. OR a type of garlic creamy salad dressing.bloody caesargeneral, beverage, restaurant
Cageterm for an animal housing pen. Can be for chickens, rabbits, fish. Note: the fish farm 'cages' are actually large pens made of nets.cage culture, battery cageschicken, egg, general
Cage cultureLarge net pens for fish farmingaquaculture
CalfNewborn or young cowbeef, dairy, veal
Calf hutchesUsed to house calves outside individually. Often look like white 'igloos' hutchesdairy
Canadian Food Inspection AgencyA branch of the Canadian government responsible for food safety, labelling, inspection and related regulations. Falls under both Health Canada & Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada ministries.CFIAgeneral
CandlingPassing an egg over a light to look at the quality of egg yolk and shellegg
CanolaAn oilseed crop with a bright yellow flower developed in Canada. The name is a contraction of Canada and ola, referring to oil. rapeseedcrop
CaponCastrated (neutered) male chickenchicken
Caramelize Heating sugar until it liquefies and becomes a syruprestaurant
Carbon footprintThe amount of carbon dioxide emitted by a person or groupgeneral
Carbon sequestrationCapturing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in areas such as soils or plants or oceans.general
Carbon taxA fee imposed on carbon emitting activitiesgeneral
CarcassThe body of a dead animalpig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
CarrierA truck or rail company that transports food and beverages from one place to anothergeneral, processor, retail, restaurant'c'-supermarket-terms
Cash cropperA person who grows plants for food, fuel or fibre. Typically used to describe grain farmers in Eastern Canada.farmer, producercrop, fruit, vegetable, general
CastrateTo remove the testicles from male animalscastrationpig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, general
Catching crewTeam of people who specialize in catching poultry to load on trucks for marketchicken, turkey, egg
Certified Agricultural Farm AdvisorProfessionals who give advice to farmers, combining their knowledge and experience; members of Certified Association of Farm AdvisorsCAFAgeneral
Certified Crop AdvisorExperts in crops (agronomy) who combine their education with practical experience to provide advice to farmers, with the professional designation CCACCAcrop, general
ChaffLeftover straw from the year before that breaks down into the soil as organic mattertrashgeneral
Channel of distributionThe producers and distributors of products from a farm to a tableretail'c'-supermarket-terms
ChefSomeone who is charge of food production in a commercial kitchen of a restaurant, hotel, resort, hospital or cruise shiprestaurant
Chef de CuisineThe hands-on leader in a restaurant kitchenMaster Chefrestaurant
ChevonMeat from adult goatsgoat, food
ChickNewly hatched chickens, until 3 weeks of agechicken, egg
Chicken catcherSpecialized job for catching chickens to load onto trucks for marketchicken, turkey, egg
ChopCut vegetables into large squares restaurant
ChuteNarrow passage between gates or fences to herd animals throughbeef, dairy
CiderAlcohol made from fermented fruit juice, most commonly appleprocessor, beverage, fruit
CideryA place where cider is made commerciallyprocessor, beverage, fruit
Circular economyLimiting waste and pollution by reusing products and materialsgeneral
Clean energyEnergy made without burning fossil fuels general
Climate changeAny major change in temperature and other weather patterns for an long period of timegeneral
Cockerel Young, male chickenchicken
Code of Practiceguidelines that help meet necessary legislation and spell out standards, such as for animal care or environment. general
Cold houseType of greenhouse that is not heated for plants that can survive frostfruit, vegetable
ColostrumFirst milk that animals produce after they give birth. An important food source for the newborn to help build immunity.dairy, beef, sheep, goats, veal
CombineLarge piece of farm equipment that cuts crops like corn or wheat or beans, and separates the grain from the stalk. (Pronounced like calm-bine.)crop
Commercially sterilePart of food processing step where heat or other treatments are used to make sure food is safe to eatprocessor
CommodityA good that can be traded, bought or sold. Sometimes organizations representing farmers that grow certain products are called 'commodiy groups'general
Commodity organizationA group that represents farmers that grow a certain productcommodity groupgeneral
Community Supported AgricultureCommunity members come together to grow local food, often gardensCSAgeneral
CondimentAnything used to season foods and enhance flavourrestaurant, retail'c'-supermarket-terms
Conservation tillageSeed planting technique with little disruption to soil, with 30% of stubble or residue from last year's crop on the field.
Conservation tillage Farming method that avoids deeply working up the ground (ie. plowing). Used to prevent soil, fruit, vegetable
ConsumerA shopper or customer that is the end link in the food chaingeneral
ContainerAny type of outer covering used to hold or transport foodretail, restaurant
Contaminatedany food that might make people sick or is unsuitable for people to eatgeneral
Contour farmingPlanting, cultivating and harvesting across a slope to follow the elevation of a field and reduce soil erosiongeneral
Contract growerFarmers who are paid to care for animals without owning thembeef, pig, general
Contract GrowerA farmer who gets paid based on an agreement with a company, usually food companies or marketing firms for growing and supplying a specific crop or type of animal crop, fruit, vegetable, pig, beef
Control measureAn action taken to prevent risks of food contaminationretail, restaurant
Controlled atmosphere stunningExposing animals to a mix of gases, commonly with carbon dioxide, to cause unconsciousness or deathCASgeneral
Convenience foodFrozen or microwavable foods that are easy to makeprocessor, retail, restaurant
Convenience storeSmall, easy-access food store with less choicesretail'c'-supermarket-terms
Conventional farmingA method of farming that focuses on growing crops and animals for profit, while using modern technologies.convential agriculturegeneral
ConveyanceA vessel, aircraft, train or motor vehicle used to transport goodsprocessor, general, retail
CoopChicken barn or housing (rhymes with soup)chicken, egg
CooperativeA business structure in which many people own shares of a company together. There are a number of farmer-owned co-op, co-opgeneral
CornType of crop that is planted in the spring and harvested in the fall. The varieties grown for animal feed are different from the varieties of sweet corn people eat. sweet corn, cow corncrop, vegetable
Corn fedAn animal feeding program that uses grain corn as a main source of nutrients in the late part of an animal's life. Corn fed programs typically help add more fat or marbling to add taste and tenderness to the meat. dairy, beef, chicken
Country of origin labellingIn Canada there are mandatory requirements to declare country of origin on certain food labels.COOL
Cover cropPlants used to cover the ground in between the harvest and planting of main crops. Helps to protect from soil erosion and may also add nutrients.crop, general
CoverallsOne piece protective clothing, with long or short sleeves; also a type of building put up with a tarp covering.general
Cow/Calf farmType of beef farm that raises cows and their calves. When the calves are weaned from the cows, they are sold to another farm to be raised to heavier market weights.cow calf operation, beef farmbeef
Craft beerMade with traditional and non-traditional ingredients by craft breweriesretail, restaurant, beverage
Craft breweryIndependently owned, licensed by government, produces no more than 400,000 HL of beer, often with a strong sense of community and authenticity. retail, restaurant
Craft wineMade by independently owned wineries, often with a focus on local ingredients and communityretail, restaurant, beverage
CrateContainer to hold suppolies; or a small pen for animals. A sow crate is a term used for the pen when a sow has piglets to prevent her from lying on her young, or to house female pigs 'gestation crates' while pregnant. sow stall, gestation stall, farrowing crate, farrowing penpig, general
CreamBeating ingredients until they are smooth and fluffy (usually sugar and a fat)restaurant
Creep FeederType of feeder designed for putting feed in for young animals to introduce them to eating solid food.pig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, veal
Creep FeedingGiving feed to young animals that are still nursing so they learn to eat in an adult environmentpig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, veal
CRISPRAn acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. Like a molecular scalpel that allows very precise cutting of DNA to achieve goals like disease prevention or healthier food.CRISPRgene editinggeneral
CropPlants grown to feed people or provide fuel or fibre. Examples include corn, wheat, soybeans, hay, fruit, vegetables. crop
Crop rotationThe pattern of planting different crops each year to improve soil health and control pestscrop, general, fruit, vegetables
Crush facilitiesCompanies that crush oilseeds such as canola or soybeans to extract oilprocessor, crop
CubeCutting food into small cubes, about 1/2 inchrestaurant
Cuisinea style of cooking, characteristic of a particular country, region or establishmentgeneral, restaurant, grocery
CullAn animal that isn't fit to keep that needs to be sold or euthanized, often due to health or age beef, dairy, sheep, goat, chicken, turkey, egg, pig, veal
CulinaryRelated to cooking - the cuisine arts of food preparation, cooking, and presentation of foodculinary artsgeneral, restaurant
CultivarType of a plant that has been created through breedingcrop
CultivatorFarm equipment that breaks up the soil finely to prepare it for planting.crop
Custom Applicator Professional who works specifically in applying chemicals or fertilizers to crops for other farmers' fields general, crop, fruit, vegetable
Custom OperatorProfessional who is paid to operate their farm equipment on other farmers' landgeneral, crop,keeps%20all%20of%20the%20crop%20and%20commodity%20payments.
Daily valueList of vitamins, minerals and nutrients found on a food labelDVretail, restaurant'c'-supermarket-terms
Dairy breedsType of cows raised for milk production, most commonly Holstein (black and white), Jersey, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn. dairy
Dash1/8 of a teaspoonrestaurant
Dead on arrivalAnimals that don't make it to their final destination on truckDOAbeef, dairy, pig, chicken, turkey, egg, veal
DehorningRemoval of horns or horn buds of calves and goats. Used for safety reasons for people and animals.dairy, beef, goat
DemurrageCost to a farmer when a vessel sits at a port before being loadedgeneral
DessicateA drying agent is applied to crops to end plant growth for ideal harvestgeneral, crop
DiceCutting food into small pieces, usually 1/4 to 1/8 chunksrestaurant
DioeciousA plant that has either male reproductive parts OR female productive partscrop, fruit, vegetable
Direct seedingPlanting seeds with the goal to improve soil moisture and conservation, with no tilling in the spring before planting.crop$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3483/$file/570-7.pdf?OpenElement
Disc harrowsFarm equipment that breaks up the soil to prepare it for plantingharrowscrop
DistilleryA place where liquor is made commerciallyprocessor, beverage
DistributionChain of delivery from a manufacturer to a storeretail'c'-supermarket-terms
Distribution CenterA warehouse used to recieve, store and ship products to retailersretail'c'-supermarket-terms
DistributorPerson or company that supplies products to a retailerprocessor
DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid, the carrier of genetic information in all living plants or animals.DNAgeneral
DNA Barcoding Species identification using a short section of DNA from a specific gene or genesgeneral
Doe Female goatgoat
DoelingYoung, female goatgoat
DollopSpoonful of semi-solid food like sour cream, put on top of another foodrestaurant
DredgeLightly coat uncooked food with a dry mixture like flour or bread crumbs to be pan fried restaurant
DressCoat foods with a sauce, like a saladrestaurant
DrinkersWater lines in barns for animals to drink from.pig, turkey, chicken, dairy, beef, veal, egg
Drip irrigationIrrigation that brings water directly to plant roots through a small plastic tubecrop, fruit, vegetable
DrizzlePouring a liquid, usually melted butter, oil or syrup, back and forth in a fine stream over a dishrestaurant
Dry cowA cow that was was once milking regularly but is now waiting to give birth and is not producing milk. Usually a period of around 60 days.dairy
DulseCollected in Atlantic Canada, dried and sold as a snack or seasoningred laverretail, restaurant, food
DustLightly coat a food with a powdery ingredient like confectioners' sugar or cocoa powderrestaurant
E.Coli 0157:H7A bacteria that lives harmlessly in cows but is deadly for humans if it's eatengeneral
Ear taga tag put in farm animals ears to help identify them with numbers or letters, can be with a adio frequency chip or just written/printed on. RFID RFID tagsdairy, beef, sheep, goats, veal
EcosystemA biological community of organisms and their environment.
Ecosystem servicesThe direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-beingecological goods and servicesgeneral
EelLong fish with only one bone that were once commonly found in fresh and salt water, always served cooked.retail, restaurant, food
ElevatorA building or series of buildings designed to stockpile or store grain. Also can be a conveyor that moves grain or bales of hay or straw up to a higher level.grain elevator, hay elevatorcrop, general
Energy efficiency ratioA number used to represent energy stored in fuel compared to the energy required to produce, process, transport and distribute that fuelgeneral, processor
Enriched foodsNutrients that were lost during processing and are added back laterprocessor, retail, restaurant, food
Environmental Farm PlanPersonal assessment of on-farm environmentally-friendly practices, usually administered by a government agency.EFPgeneral
Environmental policyGuiding principles around environment are used to make decisionsgeneral
Equine practitionerVeterinarian that specializes in horseshorse vetgeneral
Ethanol fuelSame kind of ethanol used in alcohol but used for fuelgeneral
EweFemale sheep that has had a lamb. Pronounced "you".sheep
Ewe LambFemale sheep that has not yet given birth. Pronounced "you". sheep
Executive ChefThe chef in charge of the entire kitchen staff of a restaurantrestaurant
Expiration dateA manufacturer's sell by date found on goods to show it's shelf life for nutrition, used on meal replacements and supplements.retail, processor, restaurant, food
ExportSending food or products from Canada to a different countrygeneral
FacilityA building that people manufacture, prepare, store and label food or productsprocessor, retail, restaurant
Factory FarmA derogatory term coined by critics to describe large farms.corporate farm, industrial farm, mega farmgeneral
Family FarmOwnership of a farm by family members and may or may not be incorporated. Over 97% of farms in Canada are family owned.general
FarmerA person who raises animals or plants for food, fuel or fibreproducer, grower, rancherpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general
Farmers MarketMarkets in which farmers sell their goods directly to consumersgeneral, retail
Farmingthe business of growing crops and raising farm animals agriculturegeneral
FarrowPig term for giving birthpig, general
Farrowing crateA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) to give birth and nurse piglets.farrowing stall, sow stallpig
Farrowing stallA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) to give birth and nurse piglets.farrowing crate, pen, sow stall
FeedFood made for animals from grain, hays, vitamins and mineralsanimal nutritionpig, dairy, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, veal
Feed millA manufacturer of animal feedgeneral
Feeder container to hold animal feedpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, veal
Feeder PigA piglet after it's weaned from the sowweaner pig, weanlingpig
FeedersFeed machines that dispense animal feedturkey, chicken
FeedlotType of farm with pens for raising animals to market weight. Typically used to decsribe a type of beef farm, but can also include sheep, goat and others.beef
FermentationChemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts or other micro-organismsprocessor
FertilizerAny natural materials like manure or man-made materials that are added to soil to give plants more nutrients.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
FieldReference to a particular area of land, commonly surrounded by a fence or other natural barriers to define itgeneral
FilletCut the bones from a piece of meat, poultry or fishrestaurant
FinisherAnimals fed an energy-rich diet prior to going to market for sale as meat. Commonly used for pigs or cattle.pig, beef
FlambéDrizzling a flammable alcohol over a food while its cooking (pronounced flam bay)restaurant
FleeceSheep's wool after it has been taken off it's bodysheep
FlockGroup of sheep OR a group of poultrychicken, sheep
FoldCombining light ingredients, like whipped cream or beaten eggs whites, with a heavier mixture using an over-and-under motionrestaurant
Food additiveAny substance added to food that changes the taste, texture, smell or look of foodgeneral, processor, food
Food bankCollects and distributes food to those in needgeneral, food
Food citizenshipFood related behaviours that support a sustainable food systemgeneral, food
Food desertCommunities that have limited access to affordable and nutritious foodgeneral, food
Food insecurityNot having constant access to affordable, healthy foodsgeneral, food
Food lawThe main legislature for food in Canada is the Food and Drugs Act (FDA), main focus on food safetygeneral, food
Food lossFood that gets spilled, spoiled or lost usually during production, process or distribution. general, food
Food milesThe distance an agricultural product is transported from production to consumptionprocessor, retail, restaurant, food
Food preservationPickling, freezing, canning and drying are used to preserve foods processor, food
Food processingRaw foods are made to be eaten, cooked or storedprocessor, food
Food systemAll the stakeholders involved in growing, marketing and distributing food, from farm to table.agri-food sectorgeneral
Food wasteThe loss of food that was fit for human consumptionprocessor, retail, restaurant, food
ForagePlants, other than grain, grown for animal food. Could include hays or silage.crop
Foreign animal diseaseDiseases caused by infectious agents currently exotic to Canada, with potential for rapid spread and immediate reaction by trading partners that seriously affects access of Canadian animals and animal products to foreign markets. Examples include Foot and Mouth Disease and African Swine Fever.
Fortified foodsNutrients that aren't naturally found in certain foods but are addedprocessor, retail, food
Free rangewhere animals or birds have access to outsideturkey, chicken, egg, food
Free runType of barn that animals or birds can move around in to get feed, water and lay eggs. They do not go outside.chicken, turkey, egg, food
Free stall dairy barnDairy barn styles in which cows are housed in large group pens that include stalls for cows to lay in. They move to a separate milking area.dairy
Freezer BeefCommon method of preserving and storing fresh beef; ordering a quarter or half of a beef animal for the freezer, common with direct from farm or butcher shopsretail, restaurant, beef
FreightCost to a farmer to transport grain by truck, vessel or traingeneral
FungicideType of pesticide used to kill fungicrop, fruit, vegetable, general
FurrowA narrow groove made in the ground by a plowgeneral ,crop
GarnishA fresh herb or piece of fruit or vegetable used to decorate foodrestaurant, food, retail'g'-supermarket-terms
Gene editingPrecisely adding, changing or removing piece of DNA to achieve a desired result, such as disease immunity. Genome editing, CRISPRgeneral
Genetic engineering Introducing genes from another species to an organismGEGMO, GMgeneral
Genetic modificationPrecisely changing the genetic traits of an organism through genetic engineering GMGMO, GEgeneral
Genetically modified organismProduct of genetic modification, usually refering to genetic engineering. Realistically all plants and animals are genetically modified organisms.GMOGM, GEgeneral
GerminationWhen a seed begins to show signs of growth after being plantedcrop, fruit, vegetable
GestationLength of pregnancypig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, general
Gestation crateA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) while pregnant. sow stall, sow crate, gestation stallpig
Gestation stallA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) while pregnant. sow stall, sow crate, gestation crate
GiltFemale pig that has never given birthpig
GlasshouseAnother term for greenhouse, buildings used to grow plants to protect them from weather, often made of glass with mostly windowsgreenhouse, hothousevegetable, restaurant
GlazeCoat foods with mixtures such as jellies or sauces restaurant
Global positioning systemSatellite images allow farmers to map fields precisely, then apply fertilizer or chemical or seeds according to the map. GPSgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
GlutenGluten is present in wheat (including spelt and kamut), oats, barley, rye and triticale.general, crop, fruit, vegetable
Gluten freeLabels on products without gluten general, crop, food
Glyphosateherbicide that kills weedsRoundupgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
GradingDescribes the different categories of agricultural products to determine a sale price. general, food
GraftA piece cut from one living plant and attached to another plant so it grows in a new area general, fruit
Grain cornVarities of corn that are used for animal feed or industrial purposes such as sweeteners or ethanol. Different than sweet corn grown for people.cow corncrop
Grain fedFeeding animals grains such as corn, barley or wheat as they near their market weight. This helps to add more fat or marbling to add taste and tenderness to the meat. CornFeddairy, beef, chicken
Grain fed vealDairy breed calves fed a balanced diet that starts with milk and moves to grain like corn, raised to 650-700 lbsred veal, vealveal, beef, dairy
Grain finishedCattle raised on grasses and forages but fed grain before they are sold to market for more marbling (fat)beef, food
Grass fedCattle that are raised to market weight with a diet of made up of mostly grasses. Also, the type of beef that comes from these cattle. grass fed, grass finishedbeef, food
Grass finishedCattle that have are fed a diet of mostly grasses as they near their market weight.grass fedbeef, food
GrateCreates tiny pieces of food, best for things like cheese to melt quickly or a vegetable used in a saucerestaurant
GreaseCoat the interior of a pan or dish with oil or butter to prevent food from sticking during cooking restaurant
Green manureCrops planted to be used as organic matter to improve soil healthgeneral
GreenhouseBuildings used to grow plants to protect them from weather, often made of glass with mostly windowsglasshouse, hothousefruit, vegetable
Grocery storeRetail store that sells a variety of food productsretail
GroundwaterWater within the earth that supplies wells and springs, making up the major source of water for Canadian farms.general
Grower A person who grows crops or plants for food , fuel or gardensfarmer, producercrop, fruit, vegetable, general
Growing seasonTime of year that is best to grow plantscrop, fruit, vegetable
GutterGrooved trough in the floor of a barn used to collect manure and urine and dirty beddingbeef, dairy
HalalMeat from animals slaughtered following Islamic lawretail, food processing
Handling facilitySpecialized equipment with chutes, gates and usually a headgate to help handle animals safelybeef, dairy, pig
Harvest At a certain time of year crops are cut and collected from the field; sometimes used to describe processing animals for meat.crop, general, fruit, vegetable
HarvesterA machine used to harvest cropscombinegeneral
HatchWhen a new bird breaks out of an eggturkey, chicken, egg
HatcheryBuildings with incubators (heated equipment) to hatch eggsturkey, chicken, egg
Hatching eggsFertlized eggs that are kept for producting more birdsturkey, chicken, egg
HayMix of grasses, chopped and dried to be made into round or square bales for animal feed. Typically a greenish colour, often a mix of alfalfa, timothy, clover, grasses.crop
Haylage Hay is cut, chopped and stored while it is still wet so it can ferment for animal feed.crop
Hazard analysis critical control pointRisk factors identified that should be managed to help reduce riskHACCPgeneral
HeadgatePiece of equipment used to hold cattle still for handling procedures like giving them vaccinationsbeef, dairy
HeatWhen a female animal is most fertile and ready to breedgeneral, dairy, beef, sheep, goat
Heat detectionFarmers look at their animals to determine which females might be ready to breedgeneral, beef, dairy, sheep, goats
Heat units
HectareMetric unit used to measure size of a field or farm. 1 hectare = 10, 000 square meters or 2.47 acres. Most Canadian farmers prefer to use acres.general
HeiferYoung female cow that has not given birthbeef, dairy
HerbicideType of pesticide used to kill weeds and plants.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
HerringSmall, fatty fish that move in huge schoolsgeneral, retail, restaurant
High clearance sprayerFarm equipment with narrow wheels and set high up from the ground to be able to spray growing cropscrop
Highbush blueberriesBlueberry plants that have been cultivated to grow larger berries than what is found in the wild (lowbush)fruit, retail, restaurant
Honey beesInsect that produces honey, plays a major role in crop/plant pollinationgeneral
HopsUsed to add aroma and flavour when brewing beercrop, processor
HorticulturalistA farmer or person that specializes in growing fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants crop, fruit, vegetable
HorticultureGrowing and harvesting plants used for food or decorative usecrop, fruit, vegetable, general
HothouseAnother term for greenhouse, buildings used to grow plants to protect them from weather, often made of glass with mostly windowsgreenhouse, glasshousefruit, vegetable
HybridPlants produced by crossing two or more types of plant genes, or an animal that is at least two different breeds.general
Hybrid vigourWhen two or more breeds of animals or plants are combined to get a better offspring.general
HydroponicsMethod of growing plants without soil in a water-based solution with added nutrients general
Icewine Dessert wine made by pressing frozen grapes and processing them into wineprocessor, retail, restaurant
Identity preservedMaintaining unique traits or quality characteristics of a crop right from seed through transportation, handling until processing. IPcrop
ImportBringing food products into Canada from a different countrygeneral
IncubatorA plan that manages pests in crops and involves more than one control method, aiming to be both environmentally and economically soundturkey, chicken, egg
Indigenous food plantsFood and medicinal plants used in Indigenous culture, forming the basis of First Nations' culinary worldretail, restaurant, food
Input SupplierCompany that sells products to farmers to help grow crops or animalsretail
InputsProducts needed to grow a crop or farm animals, such as fertilizers, seeds, feed.general
InsecticideType of pesticide used to kill insects.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculturesuccessful mimicking a natural food chain, finfish, shellfish and marine plants are grown together IMTAgeneral
Integrated pest managementUsing more than one control method in a program that is economically and environmentally soundIPMgeneral
International Barcode of LifeGlobally accessible system of discovery and identification of multi-cellular life using DNA barcodinggeneral
IrrigationApplying water to plants to give them more watercrop, fruit, vegetable, general
JulienneCutting vegetables until long, thin strips. About 1/4 inch thick and 1 inch longrestaurant
KelpSeaweed (sea vegetable)vegetable, food, restaurant
KidNewborn goatgoat
Kill FloorThe part of a meat processing company where the animals are moved to be stunned and the start of meat processing beginspig, beef, chicken, sheep, goat, veal
KneadThe process of mixing dough with hands or a mixerrestaurant
KosherKosher is a Hebrew word meaning “fit”. The Torah lays down guidelines for what’s fit – kosher, for a Jew to eat – and what’s not. Kosher is divided into three categories: Meat, dairy and pareve.general
KosherFood that is prepared by following Jewish requirements restaurant, processor, retail
Kosher meatKosher meat must come from an animal that chews its cud and has split hooves. (Cows, sheep and goats are kosher; rabbits are not).
LactationMilk from an animal that has given birth, and the length of time she gives milk until she has another offspring or weans the current ones. Commonly used in a the dairy sector. For example, a cow in her 5th lactation has calved 5 times. The verb is "lactate". dairy
LairageArea where animals are held in a meat processing plant before slaughterbeef, dairy, pigs, chicken, turkey, egg, sheep, goat, veal, processor
LambYoung sheep under one year old; the meat from young sheepsheep
LambingWhen a sheep is giving birth to a lambsheep
Land-based aquaculture Growing fish in tanks (contained systems) on landgeneral, aquaculture
Laying henType of femaie chicken that lays eggs meant for humans to eatlayerchicken, egg
Leadership in Energy and Environmental DesignA green building certification program used world wide to builders use environmental standardsLEEDgeneral
LegumeCrops that produce a seed or pod; well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, soybeans, and peanuts. Legumes are grown for food, animal feed or to be put back into the soil for fertlizer (called green manure).crop, vegetable, food
LentilsSmall beans that are cooked and eaten, called a 'pulse' crop.crop, food
LitterGroup of piglets born at one time from the same sow; or plant/leaf/crops on top of soilpig
LivestockDomesticated farm animals that produce product like meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather and animalpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, veal
Local foodFocussing on the distribution part of the supply chain, shorter distances between the farmer and the food buyer. Can be defined by region, province or country.general
Local food systemsFood systems defined by close links and face-to-face interactions between farmers and food buyersgeneral, food
Lowbush blueberriesLow growing shrub that grows wild naturally in North America and produces tasty blueberrieswild blueberriesfruit, food
MaltGrain that is left in water until it begins to sprout. It is then dried and used to make beer and whiskeycrop, processor, beverage
MaltingProcess that converts hard cereal grains, usually barley, into malt.processor, crop
ManufactureTo make or process a raw material into a product processor
ManurePoop from animals, often used to fertilize plants with nutrients and organic matter.pig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat
Marginal landLand that is too hilly, wet and low quality for growing crops. Often used for pasturing sheep, goats, or cattle. It's estimated 2/3 of the world's farmland is marginal.general
MarinateTo soak in a sauce or flavoured liquid for a long period of time. Usually a meat, poultry or fishrestaurant
Market hogPig raised for meat production (typically weighs up to 110kg)market pig, fat hogpig
Market weightThe target weight for growing an animal to send to slaughter finishedpig, beef, turkey, chicken, sheep, goat, veal
Master chefThe main chef in a kitchen; Certified Master Chef is the highest designation a chef can
Maximum residue limitRequirement for trace levels of pesticide residue to make sure food is safe to eatfruit, vegetable, food
MicrobeMicroorganism that can cause sicknessgeneral, food
Milk fed vealDairy breed calves fed a balanced diet based on milk and raised to 450-500 lbswhite veal, vealveal, beef, dairy, food
Milk replacerDried milk powder to feed young animals, made with different nutrients for each type of animaldairy, sheep, goat
Milking parlourSeparate area in a dairy barn designed for milking cows.dairy
MinceTo cut as small as possible, most commonly used with garlic restaurant
Minimum distance separationRecommended or regulated distance between livestock housing and other land use such as houses or waterways.MDSgeneral
Minimum tillageSeed planting technique with little disruption to soil, with 30% of stubble or residue from last year's crop on the field.Min-till
Mixed loadShipping two or more goods in one loadgeneral
Modular loadingA handling system for transporting birds from the farm to processing facilities. Modules are a series of molded plastic drawers set in a frame of welded metal tubing.turkey, chicken, egg general
MonocultureGrowing only one kind of plant in one area year after yearcrop, fruit, vegetable
MonoeciousPlants that have both the male and female reproductive parts crop, vegetable, fruit
MonogastricFarm animals with one stomach, usually referring to pigs and poultrypig, chicken, turkey, egg
MoultingSeasonal shedding of skin or bird feathersforced moultingchicken, egg
Moving BoardLarge flat board that people hold while moving farm animals that creates a visual of a "solid wall" pig
MuttonMeat from mature sheepsheep, food
Native grasslandLand that has never been cultivated (to loosen or break up the soil) and are still populated by the native grasses, plants and shrubs that ‘came with the place’. beef
Natural capitalThe world's stock of natural resources, such as water and land.general
Natural foodNothing artificial has been added to a food . NOT the same as organic, there is no standard for the term natural.general, retail, restaurant, food
Natural health productsFood with added vitamins and mineralsNHPgeneral, food, beverage
Nematocide Type of pesticide used to kill nematodescrop, fruit, vegetable, general
Nematode Common soil pests that can damage plant healthcrop, general, vegetable, fruit
NeonicotinoidsType of insecticide used to protect crops, fruits or vegetables.neonicscrop, fruit, vegetable
NitrogenMajor nutrient in plant fertlizer and manure, often with phosphorous and potassium (N,P,K)Ncrop, fruit, vegetable
Non-ambulatoryAnimals that are not able to walk on their owndownedbeef, sheep, goat, general
No-tillSeed planting technique with very little disruption to soil, with 70-75% of last year's crops stubble left on the field. See minimum, general
NutrientAny necessary compound for the growth of a living thing. Examples are fertilizers and manure for plants, and protein for animals.crop, general
Nutrient leachingThe loss of nutrients, usually carried away by the flow of water. run offcrop, general
Nutrient management Applying the right amount of fertilizers and manure at the right time to make sure plants are uptaking these nutrients and to minimize nutrient leachingcrop, general
Nutrient management planFarm plan designed to properly store and apply manure and fertilizer effectively while being environmentally responsible. NMPpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, veal, general
OilseedCrops grown for the oil within the seed, such as canola and soybeanscrop
On-Farm Food Safety ProgramA program used on farms to make sure that all risks to food safety are identified and controlledgeneral
OrchardistSomeone who grows fruit treesfruit
OrganicRelated to living matter in general. Also used to describe a type of farming and food production method that does not use man-made fertilizers or pesticides.general
Organic farmingType of farming that follows standards such as avoiding man-made fertilizers or man-made agriculture, organic productiongeneral
Organic foodGrown on organic farms meeting specific standards and inspectionspig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Organic matterComes from animals or plants and their waste, very helpful for soil health. Examples would be manure or corn stalks. general, crop
Organic pesticidesPesticides that are mined from the ground, like soaps, sulfur or hydrogen peroxide.crop, fruit, vegetable
Ornamental plantsflowers that are grown for decoration and gardensornamentalsgeneral
OvineRelating to sheepsheepsheep
Pack barnBarns with large pens bedded with straw or sawdust for animals to rest or walk ondairy
Pack dateThe date a food was packagedpackaged on dateprocessor
Pan FryCook larger chunks of food over meadium-heat, ideally flipping once onlyrestaurant
ParboilTo partially cook by boiling, usually to prepare the food before cooking another wayblanchrestaurant
PartridgeberriesTart red berry, commonly found across boreal Canadalingonberriesfruit, food
Pastry ChefA cook that specializes in making desserts, like cakes and pastriesretail, restaurant
PastuerizeTo quickly heat up milk or juice to a high temperature and then cool it in order to kill bacteria or other potentially harmful substances.dairy, fruit
PastureField used for grazing animals like cattle, sheep or goatsdairy, beef, sheep, goat, crop
Pasture raisedAnimals who have been raised on mostly grasses. There is no standard around this definition. beef, sheep, goat, general
Peak demandA period of strong demand for specific goodsgeneral
PermaculturePermanent agriculture working with nature in a holistic approachgeneral
PesticideChemical used to destroy pests (includes fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and nematocides)crop, fruit, vegetable, general
PhosphorousMajor nutrient in manure and plant fertlizer, often with nitrogen and potassium (N,P,K)Pcrop, fruit, vegetable
PhotosynthesisThe process of plants using sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen crop, fruit, vegetable
PigletNewborn pig (weighs 1-2kg)pig
PinchApproximately 1/16 of a teaspoon restaurant
Plant breeders rightsLegal protection to plant for new plant varieties general
Plant breedingCreating new crop varieties for certain traits like drought resistance or improved nutrition. Traditional plant breeding uses plants with the desired traits to propogate or cross with others. See genetic modification and gene editing.Genetic modification, gene editinggeneral, crop
PloughingWorking up soil to prepare for planting. Typically done after harvest in the fall or winter. (Plow rhymes with cow).plowinggeneral, crop
PoachCook gently over very low heat, in barely simmering water just to coverrestaurant
Point of saletime and place where a retail transaction is completedPOSretail
PolledAnimals that are naturally born without horns, even though others have them. It includes some cattle or goats.dairy, beef, goat
PollinationTransferring pollen from the male part of a plant to the female part of a plant, making more seeds for future productioncrop, fruit, vegetable
PollinatorAnimals that move pollen from one part of a plant to another part to help them make fruit or seeds. Bees are a common example.general
PolycultureGrowing more than one type of plant in one space at a timecrop, fruit, vegetable
Pork producersFarmers that raise pigs.hog farmer, pig farmerpig
PotashNaturally occuring mineral, used to boost soil fertilityfertilizergeneral, crops
PotassiumMajor nutrient in manure and plant fertlizer, often with phosphorous and nitrogen(N,P,K)Kcrop, fruit, vegetable
PoultryBirds farmed for food use, typically chickens, turkeys, ducks or geeseturkey, chicken, egg
Poultry PractitionerVeterinarian that specializes in chickens, turkeys, ducksturkey, chicken, egg
PoultsYoung turkeys from the time they hatch until 14 days oldturkey
PoutineFrench fries with gravy and cheese curds is the basic recipe. Additional toppings like bacon or smoked meat can be added. general, food
Precision agricultureFarming using innovative technology such as GPS, drones, sensors, soil sampling and precision machinery to grow crops more efficiently.general
PrepareTo process, treat, preserve, handle, test, cook or grade product for human useprocessor, retail, restaurant
PreserveTo maintain the condition of a foodprocessor
Primary productionGrowing, cultivating, picking, harvesting, collecting or catching foodgeneral
ProcessFood that has had anything done to it, such as peeled, cooked, baggedgeneral, processor
Processing stepA step in the production chain to make food and beverage for retailprocessor
Processorfood or beverage company food company, food processorpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general, processor
ProcurementSourcing products and suppliesgeneral
ProdRod-shaped, usually electrified device for people to move animals OR the verb used when moving animals dairy, beef, pig, processor
Produce Fresh fruits or vegetables OR the verb to growfruit, vegetable, food'm'-supermarket-terms
ProducerAnother word for farmer, originally termed food producer.farmer, rancher, growerpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general
Product ofThe words 'product of' must be declared on imported meat productsgeneral, food
ProvenanceThe location of a specific food or beveragegeneral, food, beverage
PulletYoung, female chickenchicken, egg
Pullet farmsFarm that raises female chicks until they are old enough to lay eggs. They are then moved to a layer farm.chicken, egg
PulseDried edible seeds of certain plants in the legume family. The four main types of pulses grown in Canada are dry peas, lentils, beans and chickpeas. To be a pulse, it has to be dried.legumescrop
PureeTo mash or grind food until completely smooth (pronounced pure ay)
Quality assurancePrograms and practices that focus on topics like food safety, animal health, environment or animal welfare. Many specific sectors have their own program with different names and specs. QApig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general
QuotaA license that farmers buy in order to produce their share of the market for supply-managed products in Canada (dairy and poultry)supply managementdairy, turkey, chicken, egg
Radio frequency identification tagsTags identify individual animals when scanned by a computer reader in the animals ear or on a chain around their neck.RFIDRFID Taggeneral, beef, dairy, sheep, goat, veal
Rail carUsed for the transportation of grain by railwaygeneral
RamMale sheepsheep
RancherA person who raises cattle. A term more common in Western provinces or states.farmer, producerbeef, general
RationA mix of feeds for animals that provide a specific amount of nutrients; or a portion of food for peoplegeneral, beef, dairy, sheep, goat, veal
Raw materialThe basic material from which a product is made general
Ready-to-eatPrepared foods in packagesgeneral, food
RearTo breed and raise animals pig, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, beef, dairy
RecallThe removal of a food from continued sale or use, commonly due to a safety or quality concernretail, restaurant, food
Red Seal ChefDesigned to create a national standard to make sure that everyone gets the same level of training across
Red vealDark pink meat that comes from grain fed veal raised to 650-700 lbsgrain fed veal, vealveal, beef, dairy
Regenerative agricultureType of farming that focuses on rebuilding healthy soils and ecosystemsgeneral
Research StationsFacilities built to conduct research a certain crop or animal, often associated with a university or collegeresearch farmsgeneral
ResidueA small amount that remains, such as antibiotics in meat or pesticides on plantsgeneral, crops, vegetables, dairy, beef, chicken, veal, egg
RetailThe sale of food to be eaten or drankretail, restaurant
Riparian The area along the bank of a river or streamgeneral
RoastCook food in an oven using dry heat. Similar to baking but with meat or poultry.restaurant
Roaster chickenLarger chicken raised for meat to weights over 2.65kgchicken
Robotic milkerRobot technology used to milk cows automatic milking, robotdairy
RoosterMale chickenchicken
RoughageFeed high in fiber but low in digestible nutrients and energy. Examples include hay (dried grasses).crop
RuminantFour-stomached animals that chew their cud and include cows, goats, sheep and bison.dairy, beef, sheep, goat, veal
RuntSmallest animal in the litter, typically referrring to pigspig
Rural ExtensionSupport system for farmers to tackle challenges in agriculture (ie. experts and information resources to help improve practices) general
SautéCooking small pieces of food over a medium-high heat with oil in a pan, usually to brown food (pronounced sot ay)restaurant
ScaldHeat liquid almost to a boil, until bubbles begin forming just around the edge restaurant
SearTo brown the surface of meat by quick-cooking over high heat in order to seal in the meat's juicesrestaurant
SectionA large unit of land of 640 acres or 240 hectares. Farms in Western Canada are commonly measured in sections or quarter sections.general
ShearTo cut the sheep's fleece (wool) off with clippers, rhymes with hearsheep
Shelf lifeThe time a product will keep its best freshnessbest-before dateretail, restaurant, processor, food'm'-supermarket-terms
ShellfishFish species that wear their skeleton on the outside of their body. Includes crabs, lobster, clams, oysters and musselsretail, restaurant, food
ShippingThe transport of animals or goods, often by truck, rail or shipgeneral
ShredUsing a grater with larger holes, resulting in long, strips to cook or meltrestaurant
Side dressTo put fertilizer on or in the soil near the roots of plantscrop, fruit, vegetable
SilageAnimal feed where the whole grain plant is harvested when it is still green and stored wet so it can ferment. Examples include corn silage, haylage. Stored in silos or plastic. haylagecrop
Silo Used to store animal feed. Most commonly used to describe the tall, cylindrical shaped structre near some barns. Also see Bunker.bunkercrop
SimmerBring a pot to a boil, then reduce the heat until there are no bubblesrestaurant
SkimTo remove fat or foam from the surface of a liquid restaurant
Slatted floorsBarn floor designed with small open spaces for manure and urine to pass through, while animals can still walk over top. slatsgeneral
SliceCut vertically down, thickness sometimes specified by a reciperestaurant
Slow moving vehicleOrange triangle sign used on the back of farm equipment to warn motorists of slow moving vehiclesgeneral
Small plot intensive farmingFarming in urban settings on small pieces of land at high productivitySPIN Farmingvegetable, general
SmidgenApproximately 1/32 of a teaspoonrestaurant
SnoodThe fleshy growth that hangs from the beak of a turkeyturkey
Soil erosionWhen soil moves from a field by wind or watergeneral, crop
Soil healthThe overall quality of soil to support plant growthgeneral, crop$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/epw16322/$FILE/01-Newton-Lupwayi.pdf
Soil typeThe texture of the soil based on percentage of sand, silt and clay.crop, general
Solar powerConverting sunlight into electricity, commonly in large panels on roofs or stand alonegeneral
Somatic cell countA measurement for milk quality based on the number of cells per ml of milk, mostly made up of white blood cells. The goal is to have a low SCC.SCCdairy, goat
SommelierA wine steward, often in charge of wines at a restaurantrestaurant
SourdoughType of bread made with wild yeast, flour and water restaurant, retail, food
Sous ChefChef who is second in command or the head chef's assistantrestaurant
SowAdult female pig (rhymes with cow) OR to plant a crop (rhymes with toe)pig, crop, general
Sow stallA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) while she's pregnant. This is different than a farrowing pen where she gives birth and nurses piglets. sow crate, farrowing stall, penpig
Spent henHens at the end of their laying cycle, typically used for meatend of lay hen
SprayApplication of pesticides to crops as a form of protection from bugs or weeds; always mixed with a high percentage of watergeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
Spray driftWhen pesticides are applied away from the intended targetgeneral, crop, vegetable, fruit
Spring wheatWheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summercrop
Squabmeat from pigeonsgeneral, food
Stable cleanerAutomated equipment that moves through a barn to push manure and urine out and away from the animalsbeef, dairy
StagingDescribes the growth of plants from emergence to each leaf, often used for crops to determine when it is best to spray with pesticidestagegeneral, crop
Stake truckTruck used to haul livestock, one level with a rampgeneral
SteamCooking food on a rack or in a steamer set over boiling waterrestaurant
SteepTo soak a dry ingredient in a liquid just under the boiling point to bring the flavour out. For example with tearestaurant
SteerCastrated male bovine (cow)dairy, beef
StewTo cook covered over low heat in a liquid for a long period of timerestaurant
Strawthe stalk of plants, like wheat, that is cut and dried, usually a yellowish colour. Often used for farm animal bedding to keep barns warm and dry.pig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, crop, veal, general
StunMake an animal unconscious or unable to feel painbeef, pig, dairy, sheep, goat, veal
Stun GunTool used in a meat processing plant to immediately make an animal unconscious and not be able to sense pain Captive-bolt gunpig, beef, dairy, sheep, goats, veal
SturgeonAncient fish that is found in fresh water, eggs are used for caviarretail, restaurant, food
SubtherapeuticUsing a medicine in a small dose to prevent sickness or accelerate growthgeneral, beef, dairy, chicken, turkey, egg, pig, veal
Supply managementCanadian marketing system designed to manage the supply of cow milk, eggs, chicken, turkey and hatching eggs. The acronym SM5 means the five groups and products sold under supply management in Canada. SM5quota Systemdairy, turkey, chicken, egg
Sustainableworking towards improving for the future, typically with three pillars of economics, community and environment. general
Sustainable agricultureproduce food while improving the natural environment, communities and providing economic value. Some programs have specific definitions of this term.sustainable food, sustainable farminggeneral
Sweet cornVarieties of corn grown for people to eat. Different than grain corn grown for animals.vegetable, food
Swine practitionerVeterinarian that specializes in pigspig vetpigs
SyntheticAnother word for man-made. Usually used to describe fertilizers or, fruit, vegetable, general
Tame grasslandLand that has been cultivated (to loosen or break up the soil) and then planted with introduced, or non native, species such as bromegrasses, timothy, orchardgrass or alfalfa.beef, dairy
Tank mixWhen more than one crop protection product is mixed in the same tank and applied togethergeneral
TeatOrgan where the milk comes out of the udder. Cows have four teats, sheep and goats have two.dairy, beef. sheep, goat
Three SistersCorn, beans and squash played a large role in shaping Indigenous food systems and tradecrop, vegetable, food
Three site productionTo keep animals in barns on three separate locations to help keep them healthy in barns designed for that age and size of animals.pig
Tie-Stall dairy barnCows are tied in stalls next to each other, where they get fed, watered and milked all in the same spot.tie stalldairy
Tile drainagePipes are buried to drain excess water from fieldstile drainsgeneral, crops, vegetables
TillingWorking up soil to prepare for plantingcultivating, ploughinggeneral, crop, vegetable
TilthThe condition of soil and suitability for planting cropsgeneral, crop, vegetable
TomAdult, male turkeyturkey
Top dressSpread manure or fertilizer on top of land without working it incrop, vegetable, fruit
Total mixed rationBalanced diet for cows all in one mixed feedTMRdairy, beef
TraceabilityTracking the movement of food in the supply chain. For example, being able to trace a piece of meat back to the farm it came from.general
TractorMotor vehicle with large wheels, used on farms for many tasks such as pulling machinerygeneral
TransparencyHonesty and openness of a government or business on practicesgeneralprovision coalition
Transponder tagA tag with a computer chip that can be read by a computer. It could show an animals feed or water intake, milk output or movement. Typically worn on the ear or on a chain like a necklace.RFID tagdairy, beef
Treated After an animal has been given a medication they are referred to as "treated"general, dairy, beef, veal, sheep, goat
Tuber cropLarge part of the crop grows below the ground. Examples include potaoes and beetsvegetable
UdderOrgan where the milk is produced and storeddairy, beef, sheep, goat, pig
Unavoidable food wasteMaterial that humans cannot eat such as bonesgeneral
Urban agricultureGrowing or raising food at a small scale in a cityurban farminggeneral
Value-addedChanging a product to enhance the value of it. For example milling grain into flour. processor, food
VealMeat that comes from young cattle under 180 kg, typically from male (bull) dairy breedsgrain fed veal, milk fed vealveal, beef, dairy, food
Veal calfMale bull calf that is raised for meat, typically dairy breedsbeef, veal, dairy
VentilationFans and airflow that keep barns temperatures and humidity levels correctpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, general
Vertical value chainA series of for-profit businesses that bring a good from production to consumptiongeneral, processor
Vet-Client RelationshipOngoing working relationship between farmers and veterinarians. VCRgeneral
VeterinarianA doctor for animalsvetpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, general
VintnerA producer of wine or wine merchantgeneral, fruit, beverage, processor
Vintners Quality AllianceSystem that ensures quality standards and origins of Canadian winesVQAprocessor, fruit, beverage
ViticultureGrowing and harvesting grapes for wine, from the latin word for vinefruit, beverage, wine
Volunteer plantsWhen a plant from last year's seed comes up in the middle of a new crop (ie. one corn plant in a field of soybeans)crop
WarehouseDistribution center that orders, stores and ships products to retailersretail'c'-supermarket-terms
WatershedArea of land that collects and releases water into a single streamgeneral
WattleThe reddish-pink flesh-like covering on the throat and neck of a turkey, designed to release body heatturkey
WeanWhen animals stop drinking their mother's milk and move to eating solid foods pig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, general, veal
Wet produceVegetables that need to sit on ice during transport and displayretail, vegetable'c'-supermarket-terms
WetherNeutered male sheepsheep
WetherYoung castrated male sheepsheep
WhipTo beat food with a whisk or mixer to incorporate air and increase volumerestaurant
WhiskTo beat ingredients with a fork or whiskrestaurant
White vealLight pink softer meat that comes from milk fed vealmilk fed veal, vealveal, beef, dairy, food
WholesalerIndependent company that buys directly from a manufacturer and sells to retailersretail'c'-supermarket-terms
Wind dryingA useful way to dry salmon or strips of meat, instead of sun-dryingprocessor, aquaculture
Wind energyWind powers turbines (wind mills) to turn electric generators general
WineAlchol from fermented fruits, most commonly grapesgeneral, fruit, beverage, processor
WineryA place where wine is made commerciallyprocessor, beverage
Winter wheatWheat planted in the fall and harvested the following summercrop
Withdrawal PeriodLength of time it takes for a medicine to completely leave the body, to ensure the meat, milk or eggs are free of any medication before eating.general, beef, dairy, veal, chicken, turkey, egg, sheep, goat
Yeast Single-celled organism, part of the fungi kingdom and commonly used to make bread and beerprocessor
YieldAmount of crop harvested from a field, in tons or bushels per acre, OR amount of meat from a carcass.crop, fruit, vegetable
Zero-tillSeed planting technique with very little disruption to soil, with 70-75% of last year's crops stubble left on the field. See minimum till.No-tillcrop
ZestThe outer part of citrus fruits, OR removing the outer part of citrus fruit peel with a knife, grater or peelergeneral, food
ZoonoticDiseases that can be transmitted between animals and peoplegeneral

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