Here it is!
Your easy to search plain language guide to food and farming.
Terms, acronyms and jargon put into everyday words, all in one place. This isn’t a search engine with millions of words, or a technical reference to write a best management practice. It’s meant for real people and real conversations, from kitchens to boardrooms to fields.

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TermPlain language wordingAcronymSynonymsCategoryReferences
100-mile DietEating pattern that includes foods produced or raised within 100 miles of where it is being consumedgeneral, retail
4-HUsually an agricultural related club for young people that features hands-on learninggeneral
à la carteListed food items that can be served separately from the full entreerestaurant, retail
Aboiteau farmingAcadian farmers built a system of dykes to make more farmland for cropsgeneral
AcreUsed to measure size of a field or farm. 1 acre = 43,560 square feet or 0.405 hectares. Most Canadian farmers use acres instead of the metric term hectares. For a visual, a Canadian football field including endzones is about 2 acres.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Active ingredientIngredients in medicines or pesticides that is biologically active. The active ingredients usually make up a small portion of the whole product.A.I. crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Ad LibitumAllowing livestock to eat an unlimited amount of feedad lib, free choicepig, beef
Adjustable CratesSingle holding units that allow the height, width and length to change depending on the age and size of sowpig
Advertising allowanceMoney that a manufacturer pays a retailer to advertise a productretail'a'-supermarket-terms
Aeration Using a tool to put small holes in the soil to let oxygen and water work further into the soil for crops general, crop
Aerial applicationSpraying pesticides by airplane to protect cropsgeneral, crops, fruit, vegetable
Aerial ImageryPictures taken from airplanes, satellites or drones to help farmers see a full shot of their field and compare differences throughout landgeneral
Ag lenderBankers that specialize in agriculture/farminggeneral
Agricultural Finance Financing of agriculture-related activities from production to marketag bankinggeneral
Agricultural SectorThe science, art and business of cultivating soil, producing crops and raising livestockgeneral,and%20raising%20livestock%3B%20farming.%20ag%E2%80%B2ri%C2%B7cul%E2%80%B2tur%C2%B7al%20adj.%20ag%E2%80%B2ri%C2%B7cul%E2%80%B2tur%C2%B7al%C2%B7ly%20adv.
Agricultural SubsidyGovernmental subsidy (sum of money) paid to farmers and agribusinesses to stabilize food prices, guarantee farmers' basic incomes and strengthen the overall agriculture sector
AgricultureThe science, art and practice of cultivating soil to grow crops and raise livestock to market. From Latin agricultura, from ager, agr- ‘field’ + cultura ‘growing, cultivation’agagri-food, farminggeneral
Agriculture & Agri-Food CanadaFederal ministry within Canadian government that oversees many regulations and programs related to agriculture and food. AAFCAg Canadageneral
Agri-foodDescription for the food system and related businesses, combining agriculture and system, agri-food sectorgeneral, processor
AgronomicAn adjective used to describe plants and plant products. Check agronomy.general
Agronomic inputA product used to grow a fruit, vegetable or any crop including pesticides, fertilizers and manureinputgeneral
AgronomyScientific field that studies the production of crops like grains, fruits and vegetables, including the soil they grow in.general, crops, fruit, vegetable
Air seederFans blow seeds and fertilizer into place to be planted. Air drills are similar.air drillcrop
Al DentéTo cook food until just firm (pronounced al dentAY)restaurant
AlgorithmFormula used to control variable rate applicationsgeneral
All in-all outAll the animals in the barn are moved out at once so the barn can be cleaned thoroughly. Then all new animals come in at the same time.pig, turkey, chicken, egg
AllergenPart of a food (a protein) that triggers the immune system of food allergic individuals. Carbohydrates or fats are not allergens. general
AllocateA process to decide how much shelf space a product getsretail'a'-supermarket-terms
Analgesic An agent that lessens pain without loss of consciousnesspig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, veal
AnestheticAn agent that creates a loss of feeling or sensation. Can be used during surgerypig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
Anhydrous ammoniaA common form of nitrogen fertilizer, used to feed many common crops.anhydrousgeneral
Animal welfare auditInspection to determine if animal welfare standards are being followed, on farms, in transit, at processing plantsbeef, dairy, sheep, goat, veal, pig
Anti-crush RailsBars in farrowing crates that make a sow lie down slower, allowing piglets to move and not get crushedpig
ApiaryColonies, hives and other equipment assembled in one location for beekeeping operationsBee yardgeneral, processor
ApicultureBeekeeping, mostly honey bees in hivesgeneral
Apiculture The science and art of raising honey beesgeneral, processor
AquacultureRaising fish and shellfish for food. Also called fish farming. Can be in open lakes or oceans or in tanks on land.Fish farminggeneral
AquiferAn underground layer of water-bearing rock. Groundwater can be extracted using a water well general
Ascorbic AcidCommonly known as Vitamin C, an antioxidant that helps form connective tissueprocessor, retail
AsepticFood processing and packaging technique used to describe bacteria-free contamination for non-refrigerated storage or long-life productsprocessor, retail, restaurant
AspartameLow-calorie sweetener used in a variety of foods and beverages and as a tabletop sweetener. It is about 200 times sweeter than sugarprocessor
Auto SteerSteering systems that use GPS or other technologies to guide tractors through fields, allowing equipment to follow the same course, time after timegeneral
Average CoverAverage amount spent by a customer in a meal period or monthrestaurant, retail
Average Farm YieldCalculated to determine if you're actual production is below average for production insurance purposes AFYgeneral, crop, vegetable, fruit
BakeTo cook food in an oven using dry heatrestaurant
Base MapMap that shows the boundaries of a field or section and information about any unique feature such as sinkholes or streamsgeneral
BasteAdding moisture to food while cooking by spooning or brushing liquid on to add flavour and prevent food from drying out restaurant
BatterSemi-fluid substance, usually made of flour and other ingredients to make bakery foods or act as a coating baked on other foodsprocessor, restaurant, retail
BeatTo quickly stir a mixture in a circular motion using a spoon, whisk or mixerrestaurant
Bee BlowerMotorized blower used to carefully remove bees from honey combgeneral, processor
Bee BreadFermented mixture of collected pollen and nectar or honey, deposited in the cells of a combgeneral, processor
BeehiveBox with moveable frames, used for housing of a colony of beesgeneral, processor
Beta-caroteneOrange coloured plant pigment that can be converted in Vitamin Aprocessor, retailer, restaurant
BistroCasual, European style restaurant that is usually intimate and cozyrestaurant, retail
Bittering HopsVarieties of hops that are used to infuse a bitter taste in beerprocessor
BlanchPutting food into boiling water for a short amount of time parboilrestaurant
Boar TaintBad taste and smell that comes from the fat of uncastrated male pigs, detected when cooking the meatpig
Body Condition ScoreA 5-point scoring system used to classify the condition of pigs, based on the amount of fat and/or muscleBCSpig
Braise Cook by browning a food in butter or oil, then gently simmering in a small amount of liquid over low heat for a long period of time in a covered panrestaurant
BrixPercent of sugar of a solution at room temperatureprocessor, retail
BroilPut food directly on a heat rack, usually used for melting food like cheeserestaurant
BroodImmature bees that have not yet emerged from their cells. Can be eggs, larvae or pupae at different agesgeneral, processor
BrownTo cook a food on high heat to brown itrestaurant
BuffetDinging system where guests serve themselvesrestaurant
Bulking AgentFood additive that increases weight and/or volume of food without altering its nutritional valueprocessor
CalfNewborn or young cowbeef, dairy, veal
Calf hutchesUsed to house calves outside individually. Often look like white 'igloos' hutchesdairy
Canadian Food Inspection AgencyA branch of the Canadian government responsible for food safety, labelling, inspection and related regulations. Falls under both Health Canada & Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada ministries.CFIAgeneral
CandlingPassing an egg over a light to look at the quality of egg yolk and shellegg
CaponCastrated (neutered) male chickenchicken
CappingsThin layer of wax used to cover the full cells of honeygeneral, processor
Caramelize Heating sugar until it liquefies and becomes a syruprestaurant
Carbon footprintThe amount of carbon dioxide emitted by a person or groupgeneral
Carbon sequestrationLong-term storage of carbon dioxide to prevent further global warming and accumulation of greenhouse gasesgeneral
Carbon taxA fee imposed on carbon emitting activitiesgeneral
CarcassThe dead body of an animalpig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
CarrageenanNatural thickening compound extracted from seaweed. Often used in dairy products to stabilize colour and flavour of productprocessor
CarrierA truck or rail company that transports food and beverages from one place to anothergeneral'c'-supermarket-terms
Cash cropperA person who grows plants for food, fuel or fibre. Typically used to describe grain farmers in Eastern Canada.farmer, producercrop, fruit, vegetable, general
CasingMembranous case for processed meatgeneral, processor
CastrateTo remove the testicles from male animalscastrationpig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, general
Catching crewTeam of people who specialize in catching poultry to load on trucks for marketchicken, turkey, egg
CellThe hexagonal compartment of comb built by honey beesgeneral, processor
ChaffLeftover straw from the year before that breaks down into the soil as organic mattertrashgeneral
Channel of distributionThe producers and distributors of products from a farm to a tableretail'c'-supermarket-terms
ChefSomeone who is charge of food production in a commercial kitchen of a restaurant, hotel, resort, hospital or cruise shiprestaurant
Chef de CuisineThe hands-on leader in a restaurant kitchenMaster Chefrestaurant
Chef's KnifeAn 8 inch long knife, used for chopping, slicing and dicing a variety of foodprocessor, restaurant, retail
ChevonMeat from adult goatsgoat, food
ChickNewly hatched chickens, until 3 weeks of agechicken, egg
Chicken catcherSpecialized job for catching chickens to load onto trucks for marketchicken, turkey, egg
ChopCut vegetables into large squares restaurant
ChuteNarrow passage between gates or fences to herd animals throughbeef, dairy
CideryA place where cider is made commerciallyprocessor, beverage
Circular economyLimiting waste and pollution by reusing products and materialsgeneral
Clean energyEnergy made without burning fossil fuels general
Climate changeAny major change in temperature and other weather patterns for an long period of timegeneral
Closing InventoryAmount of product on hand at the end of the inventory periodrestaurant, retail
CoagulationProcess when proteins separate from other nutrients and change from a liquid to a semi solid state with the application of heat. For example, a scrambled eggprocessor, restaurant
Cockerel Young, male chickenchicken
CocktailAny mixed drink prepared using alcoholrestaurant, retail
Code of Practiceguidelines that help meet necessary legislation and spell out standards, such as for animal care or environment. general
Cold houseType of greenhouse that is not heated for plants that can survive frostfruit, vegetable
ColonyAll the worker bees, drones, queen and developing brood living together in one hivegeneral, processor
ColostrumFirst milk that animals produce after they give birth. An important food source for the newborn to help build immunity.dairy, beef, sheep, goats, veal
CombMass of 6-sided cells made by honey bees in which brood is reared and honey and pollen are storedgeneral, processor
Comb HoneyHoney produced and sold in the combgeneral, processor, retailer
Combination OvenOven that combines the functions of both conventional heating and microwavesprocessor, restaurant, retail
CombineLarge piece of farm equipment that cuts crops like corn or wheat or beans, and separates the grain from the stalk. (Pronounced like calm-bine.)crop
Commercially sterilePart of food processing step where heat or other treatments are used to make sure food is safe to eatprocessor
CommodityA good that can be traded, bought or sold. Sometimes organizations representing farmers that grow certain products are called 'commodiy groups'general
Commodity organizationA group that represents farmers that grow a certain productcommodity groupgeneral
Community Supported AgricultureCommunity members come together to grow local food, often gardensCSAgeneral
Compact DiscUsed to mix crop residue with soil to speed up decomposition, level soil and prepare it for seeding. Also helpful for mixing in fertilizergeneral
CondimentAnything used to season foods and enhance flavourrestaurant, retail'c'-supermarket-terms
Conduction HeatHeating the surface which heats food from the bottom upprocessor, retail, restaurant
Conservation tillage Farming method that avoids deeply working up the ground (ie. plowing). Used to prevent soil, fruit, vegetable
ConsumerA shopper or customer that is the end link in the food chaingeneral
Consumer PrepackagedFood packaged in a container to be sold to one individual general, retail
ContainerAny type of outer covering used to hold or transport foodretail, restaurant
Contaminatedany food that might make people sick or is unsuitable for people to eatgeneral
Contour farmingPlanting, cultivating and harvesting across a slope to follow the elevation of a field and reduce soil erosiongeneral
Contract growerFarmers who are paid to care for animals without owning thembeef, pig, general
Control measureAn action taken to prevent risks of food contaminationretail, restaurant
Controlled atmosphere stunningExposing animals to a mix of gases, commonly with carbon dioxide, to cause unconsciousness or deathCASgeneral
Convection HeatHeating with hot air that moves around by a fanprocessor, retail, restaurant
Convenience foodFrozen or microwavable foods that are easy to makeprocessor, retail, restaurant
Convenience storeSmall, easy-access food store with less choicesretail'c'-supermarket-terms
Conventional farmingA method of farming that focuses on growing crops and animals for profit, while using modern technologies.conventional agriculturegeneral
ConveyanceA vessel, aircraft, train or motor vehicle used to transport goodsprocessor, general, retail
Conveyer OvenOven that cooks using radiant heat or infrared heattoasterprocessor, retail, restaurant
CooperativeA business structure in which many people own shares of a company together. There are a number of farmer-owned co-opgeneral
CornType of crop that is planted in the spring and harvested in the fall. The varieties grown for animal feed are different from the varieties of sweet corn people eat. sweet corn, cow corncrop, vegetable
Corn fedAn animal feeding program that uses grain corn as a main source of nutrients in the late part of an animal's life. Corn fed programs typically help add more fat or marbling to add taste and tenderness to the meat. dairy, beef, chicken
Country of origin labellingIn Canada there are mandatory requirements to declare country of origin on certain food labels.COOL
Covariant RiskA risk that arises when many farms in one area are affected by a single phenomenon such as a natural disaster, epidemic, economic crisis or civil conflictgeneral
Cover cropPlants used to cover the ground in between the harvest and planting of main crops. Helps to protect from soil erosion and may also add nutrients.crop, general
CoverallsOne piece protective clothing, with long or short sleeves; also a type of building put up with a tarp covering.general
Cow/Calf Type of beef farm that raises cows and their calves. When the calves are weaned from the cows, they are sold to another farm to be raised to heavier market weights.cow calf operationbeef
Craft beerMade with traditional and non-traditional ingredients by craft breweriesretail, restaurant, beverage
Craft breweryIndependently owned, licensed by government, produces no more than 400,000 HL of beer, often with a strong sense of community and authenticity. retail, restaurant
Craft wineMade by independently owned wineries, often with a focus on local ingredients and communityretail, restaurant, beverage
CrateContainer to hold suppolies; or a small pen for animals. A sow crate is a term used for the pen when a sow has piglets to prevent her from lying on her young, or to house female pigs 'gestation crates' while pregnant. sow stall, gestation stall, farrowing crate, farrowing penpig, general
CreamBeating ingredients until they are smooth and fluffy (usually sugar and a fat)restaurant
Creamed HoneyHoney which has crystallized under controlled conditionsgeneral, processor, retailer
Creep FeedingGiving feed to young animals that are still nursing so they can learn to eat in an adult environmentpig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
CRISPRAn acronym for Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats. Like a molecular scalpel that allows very precise cutting of DNA to achieve goals like disease prevention or healthier food.CRISPRgene editinggeneral
CropPlants grown to feed people or provide fuel or fibre. Examples include corn, wheat, soybeans, hay, fruit, vegetables. crop
Crop Heat UnitA system to help farmers select the most suitable hybrids and varieties for their area CHUcrop, vegetable, fruit,and%20varieties%20for%20their%20area.&text=The%20crop%20heat%20unit%20ratings,each%20area%20of%20the%20province.
Crop rotationThe pattern of planting different crops each year to improve soil health and control pestscrop, general, fruit, vegetables
Cross-fosteringRemoving piglets from a large litter to a sow with a smaller litter of similar age pigletspig
Crush facilitiesCompanies that crush oilseeds such as canola or soybeans to extract oilprocessor, crop
CubeCutting food into small cubes, about 1/2 inchrestaurant
CullAn animal that isn't fit to keep that needs to be sold or euthanized, often due to health or age beef, dairy, sheep, goat, chicken, turkey, egg, pig, veal
CultivarType of a plant that has been created through breedingcrop
CultivatorFarm equipment that breaks up the soil finely to prepare it for planting.crop
CureA chemical agent placed in or on meat or poultry, for use in preservation, flavour or colourprocessor
CuringThe addition of salt, sodium nitrate and sometimes sugars, seasonings and phosphates to pork for preservation, colour and flavour enhancementprocessor
Custom Applicator Makes sure that spray equipment is working properly and applies pesticides or fertilizer in other farmer's fields general, crop
Custom OperatorSomeone who agrees to operate all machines on the owner's land at a certain costgeneral, crop,keeps%20all%20of%20the%20crop%20and%20commodity%20payments.
Daily valueList of vitamins, minerals and nutrients found on a food labelDVretail, restaurant'c'-supermarket-terms
Dairy breedsType of cows raised for milk production, most commonly Holstein (black and white), Jersey, Ayrshire, Guernsey, Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn. dairy
Dash1/8 of a teaspoonrestaurant
Dead on arrivalAnimals that don't make it to their final destination on truckDOAbeef, dairy, pig, chicken, turkey, egg, veal
DealerRetail business that sells farming equipment and maintenance services general
DeboneRemoval of the bones from meat using a sharp boning knifeboneprocessor, restaurant, retail
DehorningRemoval of horns or horn buds of calves and goats. Used for safety reasons for people and animals.dairy, beef, goat
DeliStore or section of a store that sell pre-cooked foodprocessor, retail
DemurrageCost to a farmer when a vessel sits at a port before being loadedgeneral
DessicateA drying agent is applied to crops to end plant growth for ideal harvestgeneral, crop
DiceCutting food into small pieces, usually 1/4 to 1/8 chunksrestaurant
DioeciousA plant that has either male reproductive parts OR female productive partscrop, fruit, vegetable
Direct SalesEquipment sold to the farmer directly from the manufacturer general
Direct seedingPlanting seeds with the goal to improve soil moisture and conservation, with no tilling in the spring before planting.crop$department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex3483/$file/570-7.pdf?OpenElement
Disc harrowsFarm equipment that breaks up the soil to prepare it for plantingharrowscrop
DistilleryA place where liquor is made commerciallyprocessor, beverage
DistributionChain of delivery from a manufacturer to a storeretail'c'-supermarket-terms
Distribution CenterA warehouse used to recieve, store and ship products to retailersretail'c'-supermarket-terms
DistributorPerson or company that supplies products to a retailerprocessor
DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid, the carrier of genetic information in all living plants or animals.DNAgeneral
DNA Barcoding Species identification using a short section of DNA from a specific gene or genesgeneral
Doe Female goatgoat
DoelingYoung, female goatgoat
DollopSpoonful of semi-solid food like sour cream, put on top of another foodrestaurant
DredgeLightly coat uncooked food with a dry mixture like flour or bread crumbs to be pan fried restaurant
DressCoat foods with a sauce, like a saladrestaurant
DrinkersWater lines in barns for animals to drink from.pig, turkey, chicken, dairy, beef, veal, egg
Drip irrigationIrrigation that brings water directly to plant roots through a small plastic tubecrop, fruit, vegetable
DrizzlePouring a liquid, usually melted butter, oil or syrup, back and forth in a fine stream over a dishrestaurant
Drone beeMale honey beegeneral, processor
Dry cowA cow that was was once milking regularly but is now waiting to give birth and is not producing milk. Usually a period of around 60 days.dairy
Dry FarmingAgricultural system that relies on rainfall and moisture in the soil instead of irrigationgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
DulseCollected in Atlantic Canada, dried and sold as a snack or seasoningred laverretail, restaurant, food
DustLightly coat a food with a powdery ingredient like confectioners' sugar or cocoa powderrestaurant
Dynamic GroupGroups of gestating sows that are added and removed at different times from a shared penDynamic Mixingpig
E.Coli 0157:H7A bacteria that lives harmlessly in cows but is deadly for humans if it's eatengeneral
Ear taga tag put in farm animals ears to help identify them with numbers or letters, can be with a radio frequency chip or just written/printed on. RFID RFID tagsdairy, beef, sheep, goats, veal
EcosystemA biological community of organisms and their environment.
Ecosystem servicesThe direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-beingecological goods and servicesgeneral
EelLong fish with only one bone that were once commonly found in fresh and salt water, always served cooked.retail, restaurant, food
Effective Growing Degree Days Used to determine whether a climate is warm enough to support plants with temperature dependent growth ratesEGDDgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
Electrical StunningSending an electric current through the brain and/or heart of the animal before slaughterdairy, beef, pig, sheep, goat
ElevatorA building or series of buildings designed to stockpile or store grain. Also can be a conveyor that moves grain or bales of hay or straw up to a higher level.grain elevator, hay elevatorcrop, general
EmulsificationProcess by which two or more unblendable liquids are prepared. Examples include butter, margarine, milk and vinaigrettes.processor
Energy efficiency ratioA number used to represent energy stored in fuel compared to the energy required to produce, process, transport and distribute that fuelgeneral, processor
Enriched foodsNutrients that were lost during processing and are added back laterprocessor, retail, restaurant, food
EnrichmentA way of changing the environment of animals to benefit them pig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
EntreeThe main portion of a meal, usually served with sidesrestaurant, retail
Environmental Farm PlanPersonal assessment of on-farm environmentally-friendly practices, usually administered by a government agency.EFPgeneral
Environmental policyGuiding principles around environment are used to make decisionsgeneral
Equine practitionerVeterinarian that specializes in horseshorse
Euthanasia Ending the life of an animal in a way that minimizes or eliminates pain and distress. Also the Greek word for "good death"pig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, veal
EweFemale sheep that has had a lamb. Pronounced "you".sheep
Ewe LambFemale sheep that has not yet given birth. Pronounced "you". sheep
Executive ChefThe chef in charge of the entire kitchen staff of a restaurantrestaurant
Expiration dateA manufacturer's sell by date found on goods to show it's shelf life for nutrition, used on meal replacements and supplements.retail, processor, restaurant, food
ExportSending food or products from Canada to a different countrygeneral
FacilityA building that people manufacture, prepare, store and label food or productsprocessor, retail, restaurant
Factory FarmA derogatory term coined by critics to describe large farms.corporate farm, industrial farm, mega farmgeneral
Family FarmOwnership of a farm by family members and may or may not be incorporated. Over 97% of farms in Canada are family owned.general
Farm Business Registration NumberFarm businesses that make an income of $7000 or more are required to register under the Farm Registration and Farm Organizations Funding ActFBRNgeneral,generate%20%247%2C000%20gross%20farm%20income.
Farmed Game AnimalFood animal that is considered 'wild' but has been raised for food production such as bison, musk, caribou, quail, etc. general, processor
FarmerA person who raises animals or plants for food, fuel or fibreproducer, grower, rancherpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general
Farmers MarketMarkets in which farmers sell their goods directly to consumersgeneral, retail
Farmingthe business of growing crops and raising farm animals agriculturegeneral
Farm-to-table ContinuumA multi-step journey that food travels before it is consumed general
FarrowPig term for giving birthpig, general
Farrowing crateA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) to give birth and nurse piglets.farrowing stall, sow stallpig
Farrowing stallA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) to give birth and nurse piglets.farrowing crate, pen, sow stall
FeedFood made for animals from grain, hays, vitamins and mineralspig, dairy, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat
Feed millA manufacturer of animal feedgeneral
Feeder container to hold animal feedpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat
Feeder PigA piglet after it's weaned from the sowweaner pig, weanlingpig
FeedersFeed machines that dispense animal feedturkey, chicken
FeedlotType of farm with pens for raising animals to market weight. Typically used to describe a type of beef farm, but can also include sheep, goat and others.beef
Field BeeWorker bee that is generally 2-3 weeks old that works to collect, nectar, pollen, water and propolis for the colonygeneral, processor
FermentationChemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts or other micro-organismsprocessor
FertilizerAny natural materials like manure or man-made materials that are added to soil to give plants more nutrients.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
FieldReference to a particular area of land, commonly surrounded by a fence or other natural barriers to define itgeneral
FilletCut the bones from a piece of meat, poultry or fishrestaurant
FinisherAnimals fed an energy-rich diet prior to going to market for sale as meat. Commonly used for pigs or cattle.pig, beef
First-in, first-outSystem of managing inventory so that the product received first gets used firstFIFOprocessor, retail, restaurant
Fixed AssetsLong-term assets that a company has purchased and is using for the production of its goods and services FAgeneral
FlambéDrizzling a flammable alcohol over a food while its cooking (pronounced flawm-bAY)
Flash-FreezeMethod to freeze foods quickly using low temperatures, in a way that doesn't produce ice crystalsprocessor, restaurant, retail
FleeceSheep's wool after it has been taken off it's bodysheep
Flight ZoneDistance from an animal before it will choose to move away from an approaching handlerpig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
FlockGroup of sheep OR a group of poultrychicken, sheep
FoldCombining light ingredients, like whipped cream or beaten eggs whites, with a heavier mixture using an over-and-under motionrestaurant
Food additiveAny substance added to food that changes the taste, texture, smell or look of foodgeneral, processor, food
Food bankCollects and distributes food to those in needgeneral, food
Food citizenshipFood related behaviours that support a sustainable food systemgeneral, food
Food desertCommunities that have limited access to affordable and nutritious foodgeneral, food
Food globalisationTransfer of ideas, meanings, values and traditions from different cultures across geographical locationsgeneral
Food insecurityNot having constant access to affordable, healthy foodsgeneral, food
Food IntoleranceThe reaction to a food component that does not involve the body's immune systemgeneral
Food lawThe main legislature for food in Canada is the Food and Drugs Act (FDA), main focus on food safetygeneral, food
Food lossFood that gets spilled, spoiled or lost usually during production, process or distribution. general, food
Food milesThe distance an agricultural product is transported from production to consumptionprocessor, retail, restaurant, food
Food preservationPickling, freezing, canning and drying are used to preserve foods processor, food
Food processingRaw foods are made to be eaten, cooked or storedprocessor, food
Food systemAll the stakeholders involved in growing, marketing and distributing food, from farm to table.agri-food sectorgeneral
Food wasteThe loss of food that was fit for human consumptionprocessor, retail, restaurant, food
FoodiePerson who loves food and is very interested in different types of foodgeneral, restaurant, retail
ForagePlants, other than grain, grown for animal food. Could include hays or silage.crop
Foreign animal diseaseDiseases caused by infectious agents currently exotic to Canada, with potential for rapid spread and immediate reaction by trading partners that seriously affects access of Canadian animals and animal products to foreign markets. Examples include Foot and Mouth Disease and African Swine Fever.
Fortified foodsNutrients that aren't naturally found in certain foods but are addedprocessor, retail, food
Free rangewhere animals or birds have access to outsideturkey, chicken, egg, food
Free runType of barn that animals or birds can move around in to get feed, water and lay eggs. They do not go outside.chicken, turkey, egg, food
Free stall dairy barnDairy barn styles in which cows are housed in large group pens that include stalls for cows to lay in. They move to a separate milking area.dairy
Freeze-DryPreserving food by freezing it and then drying itprocessor, restaurant, retail
Freezer BeefCommon method of preserving and storing fresh beef, can be purchased as quarter/half of carcassretail, restaurant, beef
FreightCost to a farmer to transport grain by truck, vessel or traingeneral
FungicideType of pesticide used to kill fungicrop, fruit, vegetable, general
FurrowA narrow groove made in the ground by a plowgeneral ,crop
GarnishA fresh herb or piece of fruit or vegetable used to decorate foodrestaurant, food, retail'g'-supermarket-terms
GelatinThickener from collagen that comes from animals skin, tendons, ligaments or bones of livestockprocessor
Gene editingPrecisely adding, changing or removing piece of DNA to achieve a desired result, such as disease immunity. Genome editing, CRISPRgeneral
Genetic engineering Introducing genes from another species to an organismGEGMO, GMgeneral
Genetic modificationPrecisely changing the genetic traits of an organism through genetic engineering GMGMO, GEgeneral
Genetically modified organismProduct of genetic modification, usually refering to genetic engineering. Realistically all plants and animals are genetically modified organisms.GMOGM, GEgeneral
Geographic Information SystemComputer-based system used to input, store, retrieve and analyze geographic data setsGISgeneral
GerminationWhen a seed begins to show signs of growth after being plantedcrop, fruit, vegetable
GestationLength of pregnancypig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, general
Gestation crateA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) while pregnant. sow stall, sow crate, gestation stallpig
Gestation stallA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) while pregnant. sow stall, sow crate, gestation crate
GibletsThe heart, liver and gizzard of a poultry carcasschicken, turkey, processor
GiltFemale pig that has never given birthpig
GlasshouseAnother term for greenhouse, buildings used to grow plants to protect them from weather, often made of glass with mostly windowsgreenhouse, hothousevegetable, restaurant
GlazeCoat foods with mixtures such as jellies or sauces restaurant
Global positioning systemSatellite images allow farmers to map fields precisely, then apply fertilizer or chemical or seeds according to the map. GPSgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
GlutenGluten is present in wheat (including spelt and kamut), oats, barley, rye and triticale.general, crop, fruit, vegetable
Gluten freeLabels on products without gluten general, crop, food
Glyphosateherbicide that kills weedsRoundupgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
Good Manufacturing PracticesGeneral practices designed to ensure product quality and safety for product manufacuring, storing, handling and distributionGMPprocessing
GradingDescribes the different categories of agricultural products to determine a sale price. general, food
GraftA piece cut from one living plant and attached to another plant so it grows in a new area general, fruit
Grain cornVarieties of corn that are used for animal feed or industrial purposes such as sweeteners or ethanol. Different than sweet corn grown for people.cow corncrop
Grain fedFeeding animals grains such as corn, barley or wheat as they near their market weight. This helps to add more fat or marbling to add taste and tenderness to the meat. Corn feddairy, beef, chicken
Grain fed vealDairy breed calves fed a balanced diet that starts with milk and moves to grain like corn, raised to 650-700 lbsred veal, vealveal, beef, dairy
Grain finishedCattle raised on grasses and forages but fed grain before they are sold to market for more marbling (fat)beef, food
Grass fedCattle that are raised to market weight with a diet of made up of mostly grasses. Also, the type of beef that comes from these cattle. grass fed, grass finishedbeef, food
Grass finishedCattle that have are fed a diet of mostly grasses as they near their market weight.grass fedbeef, food
GrateCreates tiny pieces of food, best for things like cheese to melt quickly or a vegetable used in a saucerestaurant
GreaseCoat the interior of a pan or dish with oil or butter to prevent food from sticking during cooking restaurant
Green manureCrops planted to be used as organic matter to improve soil healthgeneral
GreenhouseBuildings used to grow plants to protect them from weather, often made of glass with mostly windowsglasshouse, hothousefruit, vegetable
Grid MappingPredetermined locations in a field where soil or plant samples may be collected for analysisgeneral
Grinder MixerImplement used for grinding and blending feed for livestockgeneral
Grocery storeRetail store that sells a variety of food productsretail
GroundwaterWater within the earth that supplies wells and springs, making up the major source of water for Canadian farms.general
Grower A person who grows crops or plants for food , fuel or gardensfarmer, producercrop, fruit, vegetable, general
Growing seasonTime of year that is best to grow plantscrop, fruit, vegetable
GutterGrooved trough in the floor of a barn used to collect manure and urine and dirty beddingbeef, dairy
HalalMeat from animals slaughtered following Islamic lawretail
Handling facilitySpecialized equipment with chutes, gates and usually a headgate to help handle animals safelybeef, dairy, pig
Hard WaterWater with a high content of dissolved minerals that is preferred for the production of certain types of beergeneral, processor
Harvest At a certain time of year crops are cut and collected from the field; sometimes used to describe processing animals for meat.crop, general, fruit, vegetable
HarvesterA machine used to harvest cropscombinegeneral
HatchWhen a new bird breaks out of an eggturkey, chicken, egg
HatcheryBuildings with incubators (heated equipment) to hatch eggsturkey, chicken, egg
Hatching eggsFertilized eggs that are kept for producing more birdsturkey, chicken, egg
HayMix of grasses, chopped and dried to be made into round or square bales for animal feed. Typically a greenish colour, often a mix of alfalfa, timothy, clover, grasses.crop
Haylage Hay is cut, chopped and stored while it is still wet so it can ferment for animal feed.crop
Hazard analysis critical control pointRisk factors identified that should be managed to help reduce riskHACCPgeneral
HeadcheeseJellied product made of pork byproducts and seasoning ingredients. Must contain some product from the headpig, processor, retailer, restaurant
HeadgatePiece of equipment used to hold cattle still for handling procedures like giving them vaccinationsbeef, dairy
HeatWhen a female animal is most fertile and ready to breedgeneral, dairy, beef, sheep, goat
Heat detectionFarmers or computer collars identify their animals to determine which females might be ready to breedgeneral, beef, dairy, sheep, goats
Heat units
HectareMetric unit used to measure size of a field or farm. 1 hectare = 10, 000 square meters or 2.47 acres. Most Canadian farmers prefer to use acres.general
HeiferYoung female cow that has not given birthbeef, dairy
HerbicideType of pesticide used to kill weeds and plants.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Herbicide-TolerantCrops that have been genetically engineered to tolerate herbicide spray so that the spray only kills the weeds and not the cropgeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
HerringSmall, fatty fish that move in huge schoolsgeneral, retail, restaurant
High clearance sprayerFarm equipment with narrow wheels and set high up from the ground to be able to spray growing cropscrop
Highbush blueberriesBlueberry plants that have been cultivated to grow larger berries than what is found in the wild (lowbush)fruit, retail, restaurant
HockBack leg of animaldairy, beef, pig
Honey beesInsect that produces honey, plays a major role in crop/plant pollinationgeneral
Honey-CuredShown on the label of a cured product is honey is the only sweetening ingredient or is at least half the sweetening ingredients used processor, retailer, restaurant
HopsUsed to add aroma and flavour when brewing beercrop, processor
HorticulturalistA farmer or person that specializes in growing fruits, vegetables and ornamental plants crop, fruit, vegetable
HorticultureGrowing and harvesting plants used for food or decorative usecrop, fruit, vegetable, general
HothouseAnother term for greenhouse, buildings used to grow plants to protect them from weather, often made of glass with mostly windowsgreenhouse, glasshousefruit, vegetable
HumusSticky, brown part of the soil that comes from dead plants and animals that contain nutrientsorganic mattergeneral
HusbandryCare and management practices in livestock farmingpig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
HybridPlants produced by crossing two or more types of plant genes, or an animal that is at least two different breeds.general
Hybrid vigourWhen two or more breeds of animals or plants are combined to get a better offspring.general
Hydrolyzed ProteinFlavour enhancers that can be used in meat and poultry products. Made from a plant source such as soy or wheat or an animal product such as milk. processor, retailer
HydroponicsMethod of growing plants without soil in a water-based solution with added nutrients general
Icewine Dessert wine made by pressing frozen grapes and processing them into wineprocessor, retail, restaurant
Identity preservedMaintaining unique traits or quality characteristics of a crop right from seed through transportation, handling until processing. IPcrop
ImplementAttachments hooked onto tractors with hydraulics or hitches to help with planting, harvesting and year-round tasks on the farmgeneral
ImportBringing food products into Canada from a different countrygeneral
IncubatorA plan that manages pests in crops and involves more than one control method, aiming to be both environmentally and economically soundturkey, chicken, egg
Index-based InsuranceSpecial form of insurance that can be used to compensate for losses related to extremes in weather that cause unpreventable damage to crops and farm buildingsgeneral, crop, vegetable, fruit
Indigenous food plantsFood and medicinal plants used in Indigenous culture, forming the basis of First Nations' culinary worldretail, restaurant, food
Input SupplierCompany that sells products to farmers to help grow crops or animalsretail
InputsProducts needed to grow a crop or farm animals, such as fertilizers, seeds, feed.general
InsecticideType of pesticide used to kill insects.crop, fruit, vegetable, general
InsensibleThe point at which an animal no longer has the ability to feel pain or respond to its environmentpig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculturesuccessful mimicking a natural food chain, finfish, shellfish and marine plants are grown together IMTAgeneral
Integrated pest managementUsing more than one control method in a program that is economically and environmentally soundIPMgeneral
Intensive GrazingRotating livestock between pastures to reduce overgrazingdairy, beef, sheep, goat
International Barcode of LifeGlobally accessible system of discovery and identification of multi-cellular life using DNA barcodinggeneral
Intraprovincial TradeTrading food within a single province or territorygeneral, retail, restaurant
IrrigationApplying water to plants to give them more watercrop, fruit, vegetable, general
JulienneCutting vegetables until long, thin strips. About 1/4 inch thick and 1 inch longrestaurant
Junior Farmers Association Youth leadership development organizationJFAgeneral
KelpSeaweed (sea vegetable)vegetable, food, restaurant
KidNewborn goatgoat
Kill FloorThe part of a slaughterhouse where the animals are killed and the start of meat processing beginspig, beef, chicken, sheep, goat,by%20American%20blues%20singer-songwriter%20and%20guitarist%20Howlin%27%20Wolf.
KneadThe process of mixing dough with hands or a mixerrestaurant
KosherKosher is a Hebrew word meaning “fit”. The Torah lays down guidelines for what’s fit – kosher, for Jewish people to eat – and what’s not. Kosher is divided into three categories: Meat, dairy and pareve.general
Kosher meatKosher meat must come from an animal that chews its cud and has split hooves. (Cows, sheep and goats are kosher; rabbits are not).
LactationMilk from an animal that has given birth, and the length of time she gives milk until she has another offspring or weans the current ones. Commonly used in a the dairy sector. For example, a cow in her 5th lactation has calved 5 times. The verb is "lactate". dairy
LairageArea where animals are held in a meat processing plant before slaughterbeef, dairy, pigs, chicken, turkey, egg, sheep, goat, veal, processor
LambYoung sheep under one year old; the meat from young sheepsheep
LambingWhen a sheep is giving birth to a lambsheep
Land-based aquaculture Growing fish in tanks (contained systems) on landgeneral, aquaculture
Laying henType of female chicken that lays eggs meant for humans to eatlayerchicken, egg
Leadership in Energy and Environmental DesignA green building certification program used world wide to builders use environmental standardsLEEDgeneral
LeaseContract for use of farm land or equipment for a set period of time in exchange for fixed paymentsgeneral
Leavening AgentsSubstances such as yeast or baking soda used to increase volume through aeration Raising Agentprocessor
LegumeCrops that produce a seed or pod; well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, soybeans, and peanuts. Legumes are grown for food, animal feed or to be put back into the soil for fertilizer (called green manure).crop, vegetable, food
LentilsSmall beans that are cooked and eaten, called a 'pulse' crop.crop, food
LitterGroup of piglets born at one time from the same sow; or plant/leaf/crops on top of soilpig
LivestockDomesticated farm animals that produce product like meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather and animalpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, veal
Local foodFocussing on the distribution part of the supply chain, shorter distances between the farmer and the food buyer. Can be defined by region, province or country.general
Local food systemsFood systems defined by close links and face-to-face interactions between farmers and food buyersgeneral, food
Lowbush blueberriesLow growing shrub that grows wild naturally in North America and produces tasty blueberrieswild blueberriesfruit, food
MaltGrain that is left in water until it begins to sprout. It is then dried and used to make beer and whiskeycrop, processor, beverage
MaltingProcess that converts hard cereal grains, usually barley, into malt.processor, crop
ManufactureTo make or process a raw material into a product processor
ManurePoop from animals, often used to fertilize plants with nutrients and organic matter.pig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat
Marginal landLand that is too hilly, wet and low quality for growing crops. Often used for pasturing sheep, goats, or cattle. It's estimated 2/3 of the world's farmland is marginal.general
MarinateTo soak in a sauce or flavoured liquid for a long period of time. Usually a meat, poultry or fishrestaurant
Market hogPig raised for meat production (typically weighs up to 110kg)market pig, fat hogpig
Market ResearchThe collection and analysis of consumer information (needs and wants) used by companies to guide decisions regarding new product development, overcoming problems or discovering new opportunitiesgeneral
Market weightThe target weight for growing an animal to send to slaughter finishedpig, beef, turkey, chicken, sheep, goat, veal
Master chefThe main chef in a kitchen; Certified Master Chef is the highest designation a chef can
Mated GiltA young female pig that has been mated, but not had her first litter yetpig
Maximum residue limitRequirement for trace levels of pesticide residue to make sure food is safe to eatfruit, vegetable, food
MicrobeMicroorganism that can cause sicknessgeneral, food
Milk fed vealDairy breed calves fed a balanced diet based on milk and raised to 450-500 lbswhite veal, vealveal, beef, dairy, food
Milk replacerDried milk powder to feed young animals, made with different nutrients for each type of animaldairy, sheep, goat
Milking parlourSeparate area in a dairy barn designed for milking cows.dairy
MinceTo cut as small as possible, most commonly used with garlic restaurant
Minimum distance separationRecommended or regulated distance between livestock housing and other land use such as houses or waterways.MDSgeneral
Minimum tillageSeed planting technique with little disruption to soil, with 30% of stubble or residue from last year's crop on the field.Min-till
Mixed loadShipping two or more goods in one loadgeneral
Modular loadingA handling system for transporting birds from the farm to processing facilities. Modules are a series of molded plastic drawers set in a frame of welded metal tubing.turkey, chicken, egg general
MonocultureGrowing only one kind of plant in one area year after yearcrop, fruit, vegetable
MonoeciousPlants that have both the male and female reproductive parts crop
MonogastricFarm animals with one stomach, usually referring to pigs and poultrypig, chicken, turkey, egg
MoultingSeasonal shedding of skin or bird feathersforced moultingchicken, egg
Moving Board
MowerImplement that cuts hay, crimping it and crushing it to promote faster dryinggeneral
MuttonMeat from mature sheepsheep, food
Natural capitalThe world's stock of natural resources, such as water and land.general
Natural foodNothing artificial has been added to a food . NOT the same as organic, there is no standard for the term natural.general, retail, restaurant, food
Natural health productsFood with added vitamins and mineralsNHPgeneral, food, beverage
Nematocide Type of pesticide used to kill nematodescrop, fruit, vegetable, general
Nematode Common soil pests that can damage plant healthcrop, general, vegetable, fruit
NeonicotinoidsType of insecticide used to protect crops, fruits or vegetables.neonicscrop, fruit, vegetable
Net IncomeCalculated as sales minus costs of goods soldNIgeneral, retail
New Product DevelopmentThe process of bringing new products into the marketNPDgeneral, processor
NitrogenMajor nutrient in plant fertilizer and manure, often with phosphorous and potassium (N,P,K)Ncrop, fruit, vegetable
NoduleA swelling on the root of a legume that contains bacteria that fix nitrogen from the airgeneral, crop
Non-ambulatoryAnimals that are not able to walk on their owndownedbeef, sheep, goat, general
No-tillSeed planting technique with very little disruption to soil, with 70-75% of last year's crops stubble left on the field. See minimum, general
NurseryThe facility where recently weaned livestock stay until they are ready for the next phase of productionpig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, veal
NutrientAny necessary compound for the growth of a living thing. Examples are fertilizers and manure for plants, and protein for animals.crop, general
Nutrient leachingThe loss of nutrients, usually carried away by the flow of water. run offcrop, general
Nutrient management Applying the right amount of fertilizers and manure at the right time to make sure plants are uptaking these nutrients and to minimize nutrient leachingcrop, general
Nutrient management planFarm plan designed to properly store and apply manure and fertilizer effectively while being environmentally responsible. NMPpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, veal, general
OilseedCrops grown for the oil within the seed, such as canola and soybeanscrop
On-Farm Food Safety ProgramA program used on farms to make sure that all risks to food safety are identified and controlledgeneral
OrchardistSomeone who grows fruit treesfruit
OrganicRelated to living matter in general. Also used to describe a type of farming and food production method that does not use man-made fertilizers or pesticides.general
Organic farmingType of farming that follows standards such as avoiding man-made fertilizers or man-made agriculture, organic productiongeneral
Organic foodGrown on organic farms meeting specific standards and inspectionspig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, general
Organic matterComes from animals or plants and their waste, very helpful for soil health. Examples would be manure or corn stalks. general, crop
Organic pesticidesPesticides that are mined from the ground, like soaps, sulfur or hydrogen peroxide.crop, fruit, vegetable
Ornamental plantsflowers that are grown for decoration and gardensornamentalsgeneral
Pack barnBarns with large pens bedded with straw or sawdust for animals to rest or walk ondairy
Pack dateThe date a food was packagedpackaged on dateprocessor
Pan FryCook larger chunks of food over meadium-heat, flipping once onlyrestaurant
ParboilTo partially cook by boiling, usually to prepare the food before cooking another wayblanchrestaurant
PartridgeberriesTart red berry, commonly found across boreal Canadalingonberriesfruit, food
Pastry ChefA cook that specializes in making desserts, like cakes and pastriesretail, restaurant
PasteurizeTo quickly heat up milk or juice to a high temperature and then cool it in order to kill bacteria or other potentially harmful substances.dairy, fruit
PastureField used for grazing animals like cattle, sheep or goats; can be a verb "cattle pasture a field"dairy, beef, sheep, goat, crop
Pasture raisedAnimals who have been raised on mostly grasses. There is no standard around this definition. beef, sheep, goat, general
PathogenDisease-causing agent such as a bacteria or a virusgeneral, pig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable
Peak demandA period of strong demand for specific goodsgeneral
PectinNatural gelling agent used in making jams and jelliesprocessor
PenAn enclosure that animals are housed ingeneral, pig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat
PerishableFood that is subject to decay, spoilage or bacteria unless it is properly refrigerated or frozengeneral, processor, retailer
PermaculturePermanent agriculture working with nature in a holistic approachgeneral
Persistent BullyingWhen one or more pigs are highly aggressive, affecting the welfare of the bullied pigpig
PesticideChemical used to destroy pests (includes fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and nematocides)crop, fruit, vegetable, general
PhosphorousMajor nutrient in manure and plant fertlizer, often with nitrogen and potassium (N,P,K)Pcrop, fruit, vegetable
PhotosynthesisThe process of plants using sunlight to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen crop, fruit, vegetable
PigletNewborn pig (weighs 1-2kg)pig
Pinch1/16 of a teaspoon
Plant breeders rightsLegal protection to plant for new plant varieties general
Plant breedingCreating new crop varieties for certain traits like drought resistance or improved nutrition. Traditional plant breeding uses plants with the desired traits to propagate or cross with others. See genetic modification and gene editing.Genetic modification, gene editinggeneral, crop
PloughingWorking up soil to prepare for planting. Typically done after harvest in the fall or winter. (Plow rhymes with cow).plowinggeneral, crop
PoachCook gently over very low heat, in barely simmering water just to coverrestaurant
Point of saletime and place where a retail transaction is completedPOSretail
PolledAnimals that are naturally born without horns, even though others have them. It includes some cattle or goats.dairy, beef, goat
PollinationTransferring pollen from the male part of a plant to the female part of a plant, making more seeds for future productioncrop, fruit, vegetable
PollinatorAnimals that move pollen from one part of a plant to another part to help them make fruit or seeds. Bees are a common example.general
PolycultureGrowing more than one type of plant in one space at a timecrop, fruit, vegetable
Pork producersFarmers that raise pigs.hog farmer, pig farmerpig
PotashNaturally occurring mineral, used to boost soil fertilityfertilizergeneral, crops
PotassiumMajor nutrient in manure and plant fertlizer, often with phosphorous and nitrogen(N,P,K)Kcrop, fruit, vegetable
PoultryBirds farmed for food use, typically chickens, turkeys, ducks or geeseturkey, chicken, egg
Poultry PractitionerVeterinarian that specializes in chickens, turkeys, ducksturkey, chicken, egg
PoultsYoung turkeys from the time they hatch until 14 days oldturkey
PoutineFrench fries with gravy and cheese curds is the basic recipe. Additional toppings like bacon or smoked meat can be added. general, food
Precision agricultureFarming using innovative technology such as GPS, drones, sensors, soil sampling and precision machinery to grow crops more efficiently.general
PrepareTo process, treat, preserve, handle, test, cook or grade product for human useprocessor, retail, restaurant
PreserveTo maintain the condition of a foodprocessor
Primary productionGrowing, cultivating, picking, harvesting, collecting or catching foodgeneral
ProcessFood that has had anything done to it, such as peeled, cooked, baggedgeneral, processor
Processing stepA step in the production chain to make food and beverage for retailprocessor
Processorfood or beverage company food company, food processorpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general, processor
ProcurementSourcing products and suppliesgeneral
ProdRod-shaped, usually electrified device made to move livestockdairy, cattle, pig
Produce Fresh fruits or vegetables OR the verb to growfruit, vegetable, food'm'-supermarket-terms
ProducerAnother word for farmer, originally termed food producer.farmer, rancher, growerpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general
Product ofThe words 'product of' must be declared on imported meat productsgeneral, food
PropagateTo cause a plant to multiply by any process of natural reproduction from the parent stock crop, vegetable, fruit
ProvenanceThe location of a specific food or beveragegeneral, food, beverage
PubBritish name for 'public house', an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drinksrestaurant
PulletYoung, female chickenchicken, egg
Pullet farmsFarm that raises female chicks until they are old enough to lay eggs. They are then moved to a layer farm.chicken, egg
PulseDried edible seeds of certain plants in the legume family. The four main types of pulses grown in Canada are dry peas, lentils, beans and chickpeas. To be a pulse, it has to be dried.legumescrop
Purchase OrderDocument indicating the approval of a quantity of goods ordered from a supplierprocessor, retail, restaurant
PureéTo mash or grind food until completely smooth (pronounced pure-AY)
Quality assurancePrograms and practices that focus on topics like food safety, animal health, environment or animal welfare. Many specific sectors have their own program with different names and specs. QApig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, crop, fruit, vegetable, veal, general
Quality Control OperationA planned and systematic procedure for taking all actions necessary to prevent food from being contaminated QCOprocessor
QuotaA license that farmers buy in order to produce their share of the market for supply-managed products in Canada (dairy and poultry)supply managementdairy, turkey, chicken, egg
Radio frequency identification tagsTags identify individual animals when scanned by a computer reader in the animals ear or on a chain around their neck.RFIDRFID Taggeneral, beef, dairy, sheep, goat, veal
Rail carUsed for the transportation of grain by railwaygeneral
RamMale sheep
RancherA person who raises cattle. A term more common in Western provinces or states.farmer, producerbeef, general
RancidBreakdown of fat that occurs naturally, causing undesirable smell and tastegeneral, processor
RationA mix of feeds for animals that provide a specific amount of nutrients; or a portion of food for peoplegeneral, beef, dairy, sheep, goat, veal
Raw materialThe basic material from which a product is made general
Ready-to-eatPrepared foods in packagesgeneral, food
RearTo breed and raise animals pig, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, beef, dairy
RecallThe removal of a food from continued sale or use, commonly due to a safety or quality concernretail, restaurant, food
Receiver The person responsible for accepting and checking deliveriesprocessor, retail, restaurant
ReconstituteChanging food that has been dried back into its original form by adding water, such as powdered milkprocessor, restaurant, retail
Red Seal ChefDesigned to create a national standard to make sure that everyone gets the same level of training across
Red vealDark pink meat that comes from grain fed veal raised to 650-700 lbsgrain fed veal, vealveal, beef, dairy
Regenerative agricultureType of farming that focuses on rebuilding healthy soils and ecosystemsgeneral
Research StationsFacilities built to conduct research a certain crop or animal, often associated with a university or collegeresearch farmsgeneral
ResidueA small amount that remains, such as antibiotics in meat or pesticides on plantsgeneral, crops, vegetables, dairy, beef, chicken, veal, egg
RetailThe sale of food to be eaten or drankretail, restaurant
Return on InvestmentMeasures the gain or loss generated by an investment in relation to its initial costROIgeneral
Riparian The area along the bank of a river or streamgeneral
RoastCook food in an oven using dry heat. Similar to baking but with meat or poultry.restaurant
Roaster chickenLarger chicken raised for meat to weights over 2.65kgchicken
Robotic milkerRobot technology used to milk cows automatic milking, robotdairy
RoosterMale chickenchicken
RootingBehaviour of pigs where they use their noses to dig in the ground pig
RoughageFeed high in fiber but low in digestible nutrients and energy. Examples include hay (dried grasses).crop
RumenThe first large compartment of the stomach of a cow where bacteria break down cellulosedairy, beef
RuminantFour-stomached animals that chew their cud and include cows, goats, sheep and bison.dairy, beef, sheep, goat, veal
RuntSmallest animal in the litter, typically referring to pigspig
Rural ExtensionSharing knowledge and support system for farmers to tackle challenges in agriculture general,of%20the%20natural%20resource%20base%20and%20climate%20change.
SautéCooking small pieces of food over a medium-high heat with oil in a pan, usually to brown food (pronounced saw-tAY)restaurant
ScaldHeat liquid almost to a boil, until bubbles begin forming just around the edge restaurant
SearTo brown the surface of meat by quick-cooking over high heat in order to seal in the meat's juicesrestaurant
SectionA large unit of land of 640 acres or 240 hectares. Farms in Western Canada are commonly measured in sections or quarter sections.general
SedativeAn agent that calms nervousness, irritability and excitement by depressing the central nervous systempig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
Seed DrillA tractor drawn attachment used to plant seed at a precise depth and spacing, over a large areageneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
ShearTo cut the sheep's fleece (wool) off with clippers, rhymes with hearsheep
Shelf lifeThe time a product will keep its best freshnessbest-before dateretail, restaurant, processor, food'm'-supermarket-terms
ShellfishFish species that wear their skeleton on the outside of their body. Includes crabs, lobster, clams, oysters and musselsretail, restaurant, food
ShippingThe transport of animals or goods, often by truck, rail or shipgeneral
ShredUsing a grater with larger holes, resulting in long, strips to cook or meltrestaurant
Side dressTo put fertilizer on or in the soil near the roots of plantscrop, fruit, vegetable
SilageAnimal feed where the whole grain plant is harvested when it is still green and stored wet so it can ferment. Examples include corn silage, haylage. Stored in silos or plastic. haylagecrop
Silo Used to store animal feed. Most commonly used to describe the tall, cylindrical shaped structure near some barns. Also see Bunker.bunkercrop
SimmerBring a pot to a boil, then reduce the heat until there are no bubblesrestaurant
Skid Steer LoaderSmall, 4 wheel vehicle with lift arms that raise and lower different attachments to perform a lot of different tasks such as digging, hauling and moving general
SkimTo remove fat or foam from the surface of a liquid restaurant
Slatted floorsBarn floor designed with small open spaces for manure and urine to pass through, while animals can still walk over top. slatsgeneral
SliceCut vertically down, thickness sometimes specified by a reciperestaurant
Slow moving vehicleOrange triangle sign used on the back of farm equipment to warn motorists of slow moving vehiclesgeneral
Small plot intensive farmingFarming in urban settings on small pieces of land at high productivitySPIN Farmingvegetable, general
Smidgen1/32 of a teaspoonrestaurant
SnoodThe fleshy growth that hangs from the beak of a turkeyturkey
Social HierarchyThe order that animals establish their dominance position within a group of pigspig
Soil erosionWhen soil moves from a field by wind or watergeneral, crop
Soil healthThe overall quality of soil to support plant growthgeneral, crop$Department/deptdocs.nsf/all/epw16322/$FILE/01-Newton-Lupwayi.pdf
Soil MapMap that shows differences in soil properties like texture, fertility, organic matter, pH, etc. within a field general
Soil typeThe texture of the soil based on percentage of sand, silt and clay.crop, general
Solar powerConverting sunlight into electricity, commonly in large panels on roofs or stand alonegeneral
Somatic cell countA measurement for milk quality based on the number of cells per ml of milk, mostly made up of white blood cells. The goal is to have a low SCC.SCCdairy, goat
SommelierA wine steward, often in charge of wines at a restaurantrestaurant
SourdoughType of bread made with wild yeast, flour and water restaurant, retail, food
Sous ChefChef who is second in command or the head chef's assistantrestaurant
SowAdult female pig (rhymes with cow) OR to plant a crop (rhymes with toe)pig, crop, general
Sow stallA pen that houses female pigs (called sows) while she's pregnant. This is different than a farrowing pen where she gives birth and nurses piglets. sow crate, farrowing stall, penpig
Spent henHens at the end of their laying cycle, typically used for meatend of lay hen
SprayApplication of pesticides to crops as a form of protection from bugs or weeds; always mixed with a high percentage of watergeneral, crop, fruit, vegetable
Spray driftWhen pesticides are applied away from the intended target. Could be caused by wind blowing the droplets before they hit the ground.general, crop, vegetable, fruit
Spray dryingFood processing method used to produce a powdered product from liquid such as milk and coffee powdersprocessor
Spring wheatWheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summercrop
Squabmeat from pigeonsgeneral, food
Stabilizer Food additive that helps with structure stability, usually seen in salad dressing to stop oil and water from separatingprocessor
Stable cleanerAutomated equipment that moves through a barn to push manure and urine out and away from the animalsbeef, dairy
Stable GroupGroups of pigs that have an established social hierarchypig
StagingDescribes the growth of plants from emergence to each leaf, often used for crops to determine when it is best to spray with pesticidestagegeneral, crop
Stake truckTruck used to haul livestock, one level with a rampgeneral
SteamCooking food on a rack or in a steamer set over boiling waterrestaurant
SteepTo soak a dry ingredient in a liquid just under the boiling point to bring the flavour out. For example with tearestaurant
SteerCastrated male bovine (cow)dairy, beef
SterilizationProcess for eliminating microbes such as bacteria, moulds and viruses from foods processor
StewTo cook covered over low heat in a liquid for a long period of timerestaurant
StewardshipA person's responsibility to care for land and possessions entrusted to themgeneral
StrawThe stalk of plants, like wheat, that is cut and dried, usually a yellowish colour. Often used for farm animal bedding to keep barns warm and dry.pig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, crop, veal, general
StunMake an animal unconscious or unable to think normally beef, pig
Stun GunTool used to immediately make an animal unconscious and not be able to sense pain Captive-bolt gunpig, beef
SturgeonAncient fish that is found in fresh water, eggs are used for caviarretail, restaurant, food
Sub-divisionLand to be divided into smaller lots, typically for housinggeneral
SubtherapeuticUsing a medicine in a small dose to prevent sickness or accelerate growthgeneral, beef, dairy, chicken, turkey, egg, pig, veal
Succession PlanningProcess that occurs over time in which a family plans for the transfer of knowledge, skills, labour, management control and ownership of the farm business between the retiring generation and the next generationgeneral,the%20successor%20(next)%20generation.
Sun-driedVegetables that have been dried by leaving them in the sun so that their flavour becomes strongerprocessor, retail, restaurant
SuperweedA weed that has developed resistance to herbicides general, crop, fruit, vegetable
Supply managementCanadian marketing system designed to manage the supply of cow milk, eggs, chicken, turkey and hatching eggs. The acronym SM5 means the five groups and products sold under supply management in Canada. SM5quota Systemdairy, turkey, chicken, egg
Sustainableworking towards improving for the future, typically with three pillars of economics, community and environment. general
Sustainable agricultureproduce food while improving the natural environment, communities and providing economic value. Some programs have specific definitions of this term.sustainable food, sustainable farminggeneral
Sweet cornVarieties of corn grown for people to eat. Different than grain corn grown for animals.vegetable, food
Swine practitionerVeterinarian that specializes in pigspigs
SyntheticAnother word for man-made. Usually used to describe fertilizers or, fruit, vegetable, general
Tank mixWhen more than one crop protection product is mixed in the same tank and applied togethergeneral
TanninCompound that causes a dry sensation in the mouth when consuming wine, tea or chocolate processor, restaurant, retail
TeatOrgan where the milk comes out of the udder. Cows have four teats, sheep and goats have two.dairy, beef. sheep, goat
Thermal RegulationWhen livestock keep a constant internal body temperature independent from the environmental temperature pig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
Three SistersCorn, beans and squash played a large role in shaping Indigenous food systems and tradecrop, vegetable, food
Three site productionTo keep animals in barns on three separate locations to help keep them healthy in barns designed for that age and size of animals.pig
ThreshTo beat out a grain or seed from a stalk by treading, rubbing or striking with a machinegeneral, crop
Tie-Stall dairy barnCows are tied in stalls next to each other, where they get fed, watered and milked all in the same spot.tie stalldairy
Tile drainagePipes are buried to drain excess water from fieldstile drainsgeneral, crops, vegetables
TillingWorking up soil to prepare for plantingcultivating, ploughinggeneral, crop, vegetable
TilthThe condition of soil and suitability for planting cropsgeneral, crop, vegetable
TomAdult, male turkeyturkey
Top dressSpread manure or fertilizer on top of land without working it incrop, vegetable, fruit
Total mixed rationBalanced diet for cows all in one mixed feedTMRdairy, beef
TraceabilityTracking the movement of food in the supply chain. For example, being able to trace a piece of meat back to the farm it came from.general
TractorMotor vehicle with large wheels, used on farms for many tasks such as pulling machinerygeneral
Tractors, compactLess than 40 horsepower tractors general
Tractors, high-horsepower100+ horsepower tractorsgeneral
Tractors, utility40-99 horsepower tractorsgeneral
Trade CreditShort-term or seasonal loans between buyers and sellers of inputs or products general
TransitionalFarm seeking organic certification, but is still within the required 3-year period between stopping conventional farming and beginning organic farminggeneral
TransparencyHonesty and openness of a government or business on practicesgeneralprovision coalition
Transponder tagA tag with a computer chip that can be read by a computer. It could show an animals feed or water intake, milk output or movement. Typically worn on the ear or on a chain like a necklace.RFID tagdairy, beef
Tuber cropLarge part of the crop grows below the ground. Examples include potatoes and beetsvegetable
UdderOrgan where the milk is produced and storeddairy, beef, sheep, goat, pig
UmamiTaste description that describes savoury, in addition to sweet, sour, salty and bitterrestaurant
Unavoidable food wasteMaterial that humans cannot eat such as bonesgeneral
Unfit AnimalAn animal that cannot withstand transportation that may cause undue sufferingpig, dairy, beef, chicken, turkey, sheep, goat, veal
Urban agricultureGrowing or raising food at a small scale in a cityurban farminggeneral
UrbanizationGrowth of city into rural areasgeneral
Value-addedChanging a product to enhance the value of it. For example milling grain into flour. processor, food
Variable RateAdjusting seeding/fertilizer rates across different zones of a field to achieve the best return for each area of field by minimizing the use of inputs such as seed and fertilizergeneral
VealMeat that comes from young cattle under 180 kg, typically from male (bull) dairy breedsgrain fed veal, milk fed vealveal, beef, dairy, food
Veal calfMale bull calf that is raised for meat, typically dairy breedsbeef, veal, dairy
VentilationFans and airflow that keep barns temperatures and humidity levels correctpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, general
Vertical value chainA series of for-profit businesses that bring a good from production to consumptiongeneral, processor
Vet-Client RelationshipOngoing working relationship between farmers and veterinarians. VCR
VeterinarianA doctor for animalsvetpig, dairy, beef, turkey, chicken, egg, sheep, goat, general
Vintners Quality AllianceSystem that ensures quality standards and origins of Canadian winesVQAprocessor, fruit, beverage
ViticultureGrowing and harvesting grapes for wine, from the latin word for vinefruit, beverage, wine
Volunteer plantsWhen a plant from last year's seed comes up in the middle of a new crop (ie. one corn plant in a field of soybeans)crop
WarehouseDistribution center that orders, stores and ships products to retailersretail'c'-supermarket-terms
WatershedArea of land that collects and releases water into a single streamgeneral
WattleThe reddish-pink flesh-like covering on the throat and neck of a turkey, designed to release body heatturkey
WeanWhen animals stop drinking their mother's milk and move to eating solid foods pig, dairy, beef, sheep, goat, general, veal
Wet produceVegetables that need to sit on ice during transport and displayretail, vegetable'c'-supermarket-terms
WetherNeutered male sheepsheep
WheyWatery part of milk that is separated from the curd during the cheese making processgeneral, processor
WhipTo beat food with a whisk or mixer to incorporate air and increase volumerestaurant
WhiskTo beat ingredients with a fork or whiskrestaurant
White vealLight pink softer meat that comes from milk fed vealmilk fed veal, vealveal, beef, dairy, food
WholesalerIndependent company that buys directly from a manufacturer and sells to retailersretail'c'-supermarket-terms
Wind dryingA useful way to dry salmon or strips of meat, instead of sun-dryingprocessor, aquaculture
Wind energyWind powers turbines (wind mills) to turn electric generators general
WindrowMaterial that has been piled up into a long row in a field; may refer to hay that is being prepared for baling, piles of compost or other materials general
WineryA place where wine is made commerciallyprocessor, beverage
Winter wheatWheat planted in the fall and harvested the following summercrop
WokRound cooking pan mostly used for stir frying and steamingrestaurant, retail
Yeast Single-celled organism, part of the fungi kingdom and commonly used to make bread and beerprocessor
YieldAmount of crop harvested from a field, in tons or bushels per acre, OR amount of meat from a carcass.crop, fruit, vegetable
Yield MapMap that indicates differences in crop yield within a fieldgeneral
Zero-tillSeed planting technique with very little disruption to soil, with 70-75% of last year's crops stubble left on the field. See minimum till.No-tillcrop
ZestThe outer part of citrus fruits, OR removing the outer part of citrus fruit peel with a knife, grater or peelergeneral, food, restaurant
ZoonoticDiseases that can be transmitted between animals and peoplegeneral
Native grasslandField used for grazing animals like cattle, sheep or goats with native grasses, not cultivatedpasturegeneral, beef
Tame grasslandFields for grazing animals that have been cultivated or planted with non-native grasses or legumes like alfalfa or cloverpasturegeneral, beef
GrazeThe verb for animals eating grasses in a field, typically cattle, sheep, goats or horsesgeneral, beef, sheep, goats, dairy

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